Alexandrite (Laser)
BeAl2O4:Cr3+

Alexandrite (Laser)
BeAl2O4:Cr3+

Properties

Parameter unit

Values

Molecular weight

 

126.97

Mean dislocation density

cm2

103

Syngony

 

Rhombic

Spatial group

 

Pnma

Unit sell parameters

Å

a = 5.47
b = 9.39
c = 4.42

Refraction indexes

 

Ng = 1.753
Nm = 1.747
Np = 1.744

Density

g/cm3

3.79

Moh’s hardness

 

8.5 

Axial characteristics

 

Biaxial 

Melting point

oC

1870

Thermal conductivity

W/cmoK

0.23

Color

 

Green (for daylight),
Red (for artificial lightening)

Al2O4:Cr3+   PROPERTIES

Cr4+ concentration 

at%

0.03 – 1.0

Stimulated emission cross-section at 300 K

cm2

3.0 ´ 10-19

Lifetime

sec

260 ´ 10-6

Optical loss (l=  750 nm)

cm-1

0.001 - 0.003

Wavelengths of operation in CW and pulsed mode 

mm

0.70 – 0.82

BeAl2O4:Cr3+  LASER RODS

Configuration of rod’s cross section

 

Round

Sizes and processing

 

 

Diameter tolerance

mm

+/- 0.1

Length tolerance

mm

+/- 0.5

Non-parallelism of end faces

 

10”

Surface finish

Scratch-dig

10-5

Flatnes

 

l/10

Orientation tolerance

 

< 0.5o

Rod’s orientation

 

[001]

Diameter

mm

4 – 10

Length

mm

60 - 120

Aluminium & Magnesium Oxide / Spinell
 
1 Al2O3* 1 MgO or 3,5 Al2O3* 1 MgO MgAl2O4:Co2+

Aluminium & Magnesium Oxide / Spinell
1 Al2O3* 1 MgO or 3,5 Al2O3* 1 MgO

Crystal properties

Crystal growth method

CZ, Flame fusion (3,5 : 1)

 

 

Crystal growth orientation

(100), (110), (111)

 

2 inch diameter

Variations

Dopands on request

Crystallographic structure

Cubic: a = 8.10 Å

Mineralogical

Spinell

Twinning structure

domaine structure

Colour

Colourless

Density

3.61 g/cm3

Melting point

1950 °C

Hardness

8 (Mohs)

Dielectric constan

8 - 9

Dielectric loss tangent (10 GHz

ca. 3.0 * 10_5

Specific resistivity

ca. 1014 W/ cm

Dielectric loss tangent (10GHz).

3.0 * 10_5 
8.6 * 10_5

|| c-axis.
^ c-axis.

RT.
RT.

Dielectric constant

1016 W/cm

 

RT

Transmission range

0.2 to 6.0 mm

 

Refraction index

nd = 1.727

at 500 nm

Dispersion

0.012

 

Standard orientations

Orientation:
AluminiumMagnesiumOxid

(001), (111), (110)
Other orientations on request

Aluminium Oxide
α-Al2O3

Aluminium Oxide
ά? -Al2O3
 

Aluminium oxid: Al2O3-Cr, 
Al2O3-Flux, Al2O3-Cr Flux

Aluminium oxid: Al2O3 Korundum 
and Ruby-Crystals

Aluminium oxid: Al2O3 : Cr
Ruby rod

 
   

Aluminium oxid Al2O3

Aluminium oxid Al2O3

 

 
Aluminium Oxide6  
Aluminium Oxide7 Aluminium Oxide8

Aluminium Oxide9

 

Crystal properties

Crystal growth method

Czochralski, HEM,Verneuil

Crystal growth orientation

(0 001),(1102),(1012),(1010)

Maximum size

7 inch diameter

Variations

Doped crystals (Fe, Nb, Ti, W,Ta,V,Cr)
Other dopands on request 

Crystallographic properties

Hexagonal / Rhombohedric

Crystallographic structure

a = 4.77 A
c = 13.04 A
a : c = 1 : 2.734

a =   4.758 Å
c = 12.991 Å

Mineralogical synonyms

 Sapphire, Corundum

Twinning structure

Twinfree

Colour

 Colourless

Density

3.98 g/cm3

Melting point

2052  °C

Hardnes

9   (Mohs)

Thermal  expansion coefficient

5.4 * 10_6 K_1 
6.2 * 10_6 K_1

|| c-axis
^ c-axis 

RT
RT

Dielectric  constant

9.4
11.5

| c-axis
^ c-axis

RT
RT

 

Physical properties cont.

Dielectric loss tangent (10GHz)

Aluminium Oxide10

 

3.0 * 10_5
8.6 * 10_5

| | c-axis
^ c-axis

RT
RT

Dielectric constant:

1016 W/cm

RT

 

Optical properties

Transmission range

0.2 to 6.0 mm

 

Refraction index:

nd = 1.8336 
nd = 1.58638 

at 265 nm
 at 5.6 mm

Dispersion

 0.011

 

 

Standard orientations

Aluminium Oxide11

(0001),(1102),(1012),(1010)

Other orientations on request

List of  Refractive index, ordinary ray at 24 °C (Al2O3)

Optical properties  refraction index Aluminium oxide

Wavelength (µm)

Refractive index 

0,28035

1,8243

0,289036

1,8195

0,29673

1,8159

0,30215

1,8135

0,31300

1,8091

0,33415

1,8018

0,34662

1,7981

0,36105

1,7945

0,36501

1,7936

0,39064

1,7883

0,40466

1,7858

0,43583

1,7812

0,54607

1,7708

0,57696

1,7688

0,57907

1,7687

0,64385

1,7655

0,70652

1,7630

0,85212

1,7588

0,89440

1,7579

1,01398

1,7555

1,12866

1,7534

1,36728

1,7494

1,39506

1,7489

1,52952

1,7466

1,69320

1,7437

1,70913

1,7434

1.81307

1,7414

1.97010

1,7383

2,15260

1,7344

2,24929

1,7323

2,32542

1,7306

2,43740

1,7278

3,24320

1,7044

3,26660

1,7036

3,30300

1,7023

3,29300

1,7015

3,41880

1,6982

3,50780

1,6950

3,70000

1,6875

4,25800

1,6637

4,95400

1,6266

5,14560

1,6151

5,34900

1,6020

5,41900

1,5973

5,577

1,5864

Anatase crystals (natural)
TiO2

Anatase crystals (natural)
TiO2
   

We offer a wide range of Anatase crystal plates.
Please keep in mind that this crystals are natural and as larger the substrates as more defects you will find.
Also large substrates are very brittle.

 

Standard orientations

 

(010) - (100) -(001) - (110) - (111) all others on request

 

Structure

 

Tetragonal D19/4h-I4

 

Lattice constants

 

a = 3,74 A
b = 9,39 A

 

Color

 

light to deep blue, sometime pinkish to red

 
   

Barium fluorid
BaF2

Barium fluorid
BaF2
Barium Flourid 
Crystal properties

Crystal Type.

cubic, CaF2 type structure

 

Transmission Range

0.15 ... 15 µm

 

Refractive Index

no = 1,6654 
ne = 1,4898 @ 509 nm

 

Density

4.89 g/cm3

 

Melting Point

1280, 1355 °C

 

Molecular Weight

175.3368

 

Thermal Conductivity

11.72 W/(m K) @ 13 °C

Specific Heat

410 J/(kg K) @ 27 °C

Thermal Expansion

18.1 × 10–6 / K @ –110...120 °C

Hardness (Knoop)

82 (indenter load: 500 g)

Young’s Modulus

56.4 GPa

Shear Modulus

25.4 GPa

Bulk Modulus

268.89 GPa

Rupture Modulus

26.2 Mpa

Elastic Coefficient

C11 = 90.4

C12 = 40.6

C44 = 25.3 Gpa

Dielectric Constant

7.33 @ f = 2 MHz

Solubility in Water

0.17 g / 100 g @ 23 °C

Crystal Structure

single crystal, synthetic

Cleavage Planes

(111)

Application

Scintillation material
correction part in lens systems

Remarks

radiation resistant
susceptible to thermal shock
laser damage threshold: 27,5 GW/cm2
@ 3.8 µm, 75 ns pulse length

List of Optical Crystals

Materials

Refractive Index

Transmission
Range (mm)

Density
(g/cm³)

Thermal Expansion
Coefficient (10
-6/K)

 

BK7 glass

1.5164 (588 nm)

0.330 – 2.1

2.51

7.5

 

SF11 glass

1.78472 (588 nm)

0.370 – 2.5

4.74

6.8

 

F2 glass

1.62004 (588 nm)

0.420 – 2.0

3.61

8.2

 

Fused Silica

1.4858 (308 nm)

0.185 – 2.5

2.20

0.55

 

CaF2

1.399  (5.0 mm)

 0.170 – 7.8

 3.18

 18.85

 

BaF2

 1.460 (3.0 um)

 0.15 – 12.0

 4.88

 18.4

 

Sapphire

1.755 (1.0mm)

0.180 – 4.5

3.98

8.4

 

Silicon

3.4179 (10mm)

 1.200 – 7.0

 2.33

 4.15

 

Ge

4.003 (10 mm)

 1.900 – 16

 5.33

 6.1

 

ZnSe

2.40  (10 mm)

0.630 – 18

5.27

7.8

 

ZnS

2.2 (10mm)

0.380 –14

4.09

6.5

 

LiF

1.39 (500 nm)

 0.150 – 5.2

 2.64

37

 

KBr

1.526 (10 mm)

 0.280 – 22

 2.75

43

 

 MgF2

no =  1.3836
ne = 1.3957 (405 nm)

0.130 – 7.0

7.37

a: 13.7
b: 8.48

 

YVO4

no = 1.9500
ne = 2.1554 (1.3 mm)

0.400 – 5.0

4.22

a: 4.46
b: 11.37

 

Calcite

no =  1.6557
ne = 1.4852 (633 nm)

0.210 – 2.3

2.75

a: 24.39
b: 5.68

 

Quartz

no =  1.5427
ne = 1.5518 (633 nm)

0.200 – 2.3

2.65

7.07

 

α-BBO

no =  1.6749
n= 1.5555 (532 nm)

0.190 – 3.5

3.85

a: 4.0
c: 36

 

LiNbO3

no =  2.2863
ne = 2.2027 (633 nm)

0.370 – 4.5

4.64

a: 16.7
c: 2.0

 

Barium Titanate
BaTiO3

Barium Titanate
BaTiO3

Crystal properties

Crystal Structure

Tetragonal(4m) 13oC<T<132oC

Cell parameter

a=3.99Å, c=4.04Å, (at 26 oC)

Melting Point

1891 oK

Density.

6.06 g/cm3 (at 26 oC)

Specific Heat

0.527 J/g·k (300°K)

Thermal conductivity

6 W/m·k (300°K)

Thermal expansion (10-6k-1)

15.7∥?a 6.2∥?c

Dielectric constant(εer)

εea=3000 εec=800

Hardness (Mohs)

4.5

Growth Method

TSSG (Top Seeded Solution Growth)

Index of Refraction

515 nm

633 nm

800 nm

no

2.4912

2.4160

2.3681

ne

2.4247

2.3630

2.3235

Transmission wavelength

0.43 - 6.30 um

Electro Optic Coefficients.

rT13 = 8+ / -2 pm/V

 

rT33 = 105-/+10 pm/V

 

rT42 = 1300+ / -100 pm/V

Reflectivity of SPPC ( at 0 deg. cut )

50-70 % (Ce: BaTiO3) for lamda = 515 nm

 

40-60 % (PureBaTiO3) for lamda = 515 nm

 

50-80 % (Ce: BaTiO3) for lamda = 633 nm

 

40-60 % (PureBaTiO3) for lamda = 633 nm

Two-wave mixing coupling constant.

10-40 cm-1

Absorption loss
Lamda:
a :


515 nm
0.285cm-1


633 nm
0.108cm-1


800 nm
0.033cm-1

Wavelength range for photo refractive effect

Undoped BTO

for visible

 

 

Ce: BTO

480-780nm

 

 

Rh: BTO

720-1060nm

 

Specifications

Standard Size

10x10, 10x5,

10x3, 5x5 mm

 

Thickness

0.5mm, 1.0mm

 

 

Polishing

one or two side polished

 

Bulk

5 x 5 x 5 mm

4 x 4 x 4 mm

3 x 3 x 3 mm,

 

0° or 45° cut, 2 - 6 faces polished

Orientation

<100>, <110>, <001>, <111>

Orientation accuracy

± 0.5°

 

 

Beryllium Aluminate
BeAl6O10:Cr3+

Beryllium Aluminate
BeAl6O10:Cr3+

Properties

 

Density, g/cm3

3.74

Mohs hardness

7.5

Thermal capacity, J/kg´K

0.8

Thermal conductivity, W/m´K

12.5

Yong module ´109n/m2

381

Puasson module

0.24

Cr-concentration, at. %

0.05-0.3

Fluorescence range, mm

0.7-1.1

Oscillation maximum, mm

0.83

Lifetime, ms

13.5

Transition cross-section, 10-20cm2

6.0

Lasing range

0.73 – 0.95

Beta-Barium Borate
ß-BaB2O4

Beta-Barium Borate
ß-BaB2O4

Structural and Physical Properties

Crystal Structure .

Trigonal, space group R3c

 

 

Cell Parameters

A = b = 12.532 Å

   

C = 12.717 Å

   

Z = 6

   

Melting Point

1095 ± 5°C

   

Transsition temperature

925 ± 5°C

   

Optical homogeneity

δddn ≈ 10-6 /cm

   

Mohs Hardness

4

   

Density

3.85 g/cm³

   

Absorption Coefficient

< 0.1 %/cm ( at 1064 nm )

   

Specific hea:

1.91 J/cm³ x K

Hygrocopic susceptibility

Low

Thermal expansion Coefficients.

a, 4 x 10-6 /K
c, 36 x 10-6 /K

Thermal Conductivity

^c, 1.2 W/m/K; 
//c, 1.6 W/m/K

Linear Optical Properties

Transparency range

189 – 3500 nm

Refractive indices

at 1064 nm

ne = 1.5425

no = 1.6551

at 532 nm

n= 1.5555

no = 1.6749

at 266 nm

ne = 1.6146

no = 1.7571

Therm – optic Coefficients.

dn/ dt = -9.3 x 10-6 /°C

dn/ dt = -16.6 x 10-6 /°C

Nonlinear Optical Properties

Phase – matchable output Wavelenghts

189 – 1750 nm

NLO Coefficients

d11 = 5.8 x d36 (KDP)

d31 = 0.05 x d11

d22 = 0.05 x d11

Electro – Optic Coefficients

γ??11 = 2.7 pm/V, γ??22, γ??31 <0.1 γ??11

Half – wave voltage

48 KV (at 1064 nm)

Damage threshold

at 1064 nm

5 GW / cm² 
(10 ns)

10 GW / cm² 
(1.3 ns)

at 532 nm

1 GW / cm² 
(10 ns)

7 GW / cm² 
(250 ns)

List of Optical Crystals

Materials

Refractive Index

Transmission
Range (mm)

Density
(g/cm³)

Thermal Expansion  
Coefficient (10-6/K) 

 

BK7 glass

1.5164 (588 nm)

0.330 – 2.1

2.51

7.5 

 

SF11 glass

1.78472 (588 nm)

0.370 – 2.5

4.74

6.8 

 

F2 glass

1.62004 (588 nm)

0.420 – 2.0

3.61

8.2 

 

Fused Silica

1.4858 (308 nm)

0.185 – 2.5

2.20

0.55 

 

CaF2

1.399  (5.0 mm)

 0.170 – 7.8

 3.18

 18.85 

 

BaF2

 1.460 (3.0 um)

 0.15 – 12.0

 4.88

 18.4 

 

Sapphire

1.755 (1.0mm)

0.180 – 4.5

3.98

8.4 

 

Silicon

3.4179 (10mm)

 1.200 – 7.0

 2.33

 4.15 

 

Ge

4.003 (10 mm)

 1.900 – 16

 5.33

 6.1 

 

ZnSe

2.40  (10 mm)

0.630 – 18

5.27

7.8 

 

ZnS

2.2 (10mm)

0.380 –14

4.09

6.5 

 

LiF

1.39 (500 nm)

 0.150 – 5.2

 2.64

37 

 

KBr

1.526 (10 mm)

 0.280 – 22

 2.75

43 

 

 MgF2

no =  1.3836
ne = 1.3957 (405 nm)

0.130 – 7.0

7.37

a: 13.7
b: 8.48

 

YVO4

no = 1.9500
ne = 2.1554 (1.3 mm)

0.400 – 5.0

4.22

a: 4.46
b: 11.37

 

Calcite

no =  1.6557
ne = 1.4852 (633 nm)

0.210 – 2.3

2.75

a: 24.39
b: 5.68

 

Quartz

no =  1.5427
ne = 1.5518 (633 nm)

0.200 – 2.3

2.65

7.07

 

α-BBO

no =  1.6749
n= 1.5555 (532 nm)

0.190 – 3.5

3.85

a: 4.0
c: 36

 

LiNbO3

no =  2.2863
ne = 2.2027 (633 nm)

0.370 – 4.5

4.64

a: 16.7
c: 2.0

 

Bismuth Silicate &
Bismuth Germanate
BSO &
BGO

Bismuth Silicate &
Bismuth Germanate
BSO &
BGO
Bismuth Germanate (BGO) Bismuth Germanate (BGO) Bismuth Silicate (BSO)
     

Basic Properties

Crystal

Bi12SiO20 (BSO)

Bi12GeO20 (BGO)

Symmetry

Cubic, 23

Cubic, 23

Melting Point

900 °C

930 °C

Density

9.2 g/cm³

9.2 g/cm³

Mohs Hardness

4.5

4.5

Transparencey Range

450 – 7500 nm

470 – 7500 nm

Transmittance at 633 nm

69%

67%

Refractive Index at 633 nm

2.54

2.55

Dielectric Constant

56

40

Electro-optic Coefficient

r41 = 5 x 10-12 m/V

r41 = 3.4 x 10-12 m/V

Resistivity

5 x 1011W-cm

8 x 1011W-cm

Loss Tangent

0.0015

0.0035

Comparison, BGO, CWO

Properties of scintillation Crystals

Crystal

Item

BGO

Bi4Ge3O12

CWO

CdWO4

Effective  atomic number

75

65

Density  (g/cm³)

7.13

7.90

Decay  constant (ns)

300

5000

Light output  (%)

12

39

Maximum  emission wavelagth (nm)

480

540

Refractive  index

2.15

5.25

Sensitivity  to moisture

None

None

Cleavage

None

Yes

Attenuation coefficient

X-ray  150 KeV

9.84

7.64

(cm-1

Y-ray  511 KeV

0.955

0.856

 

Characteristics

Application

GSO

Short decay time

High performance

Positron CT

BGO

Better absorption of

Positron CT

Radioactive rays

Detection of high energy

Because of its large

Partidle in the field of

Effective atomic number

Fundamental physics

CWO

Large light output

X-ray CT

Which enables the use

 

Of silicon photo diode

Bournonite
PbCu [SbS3]

Bournonite
PbCu [SbS3][1]

Crystal properties

 

Crystal growth method

Natural source

Crystal growth orientation

(100)

Maximum size

5x10x20 mm

Variations

None

Crystal properties

 

Crystallographic structure

a = 8,16 A

 

b = 8,71 A

 

c = 7,81 A

Mineralogical synonyms

None

Twinning structure

Twinfree

Colour

Metallic silver

Density

5,8 g/cm³

Melting point

1200 °C

Hardnes

9 (Mohs)

Brookite
TiO2

Brookite
TiO2

Crystal symmetry

Orthorhombic 2/m 2/m 2/m dipyramidal

Unit cell

Z = 8
a = 5.4558 Å
b = 9.1819 Å
c = 5.1429 Å

Formula mass

79.88 g[1]

Color

Brown, yellowish brown, or black

Cristal habit

Tabular and striated, pyramidal or pseudohexagonal

Crystal system

Orthorhombic

Twinning

On {120}, uncertain

Cleavage

Poor on {120}, in traces on {001}

Mohs Scale hardness

5 1/2 to 6

Specific gravity

4.08 to 4.18

Optical properties

Biaxial (+)

Refractive index

nα = 2.583
nβ = 2.584
nγ = 2.700

Birefringence

∂   = 0.117

2V angle

Calculated: 12°  to 2°

Cadmium Selenide
CdSe

Cadmium Selenide
CdSe

Crystal properties

Orientation

Size

Polish

(0,0,0,1)

10 x 10 x 1mm3

Both sides

(1,1,-2,0

10 x 10 x 1mm3

Both sides

(1,-1,0,0)

10 x 10 x 1mm3

Both sides

Growth method

Seeded Vapor-Phase Free Growth Technology

Structure

hexagonal

Lattice Parameters

a = 4.2985Å c = 7.0150Å

Growth Direction

<0001>

Standard orientations

(0,0,0,1) (1,1,-2,0) (1,-1,0,0) (1,1,-2,0)

 

is widely used as substrate fro epitaxial growth.

Specific Resistivity

1... 1 x 108 Ohm cm

Hall Mobility

1050 (e) cm2/ V x sec

EPD

< 5 x 105/cm2

Polishing

both sides mechanically polished
If you wish to use these substrates for epitaxial growth,
it is necessary to do chemical treating before epi-growth at your side

Cadmium Sulfide
CdS

Cadmium Sulfide
CdS

Crystal properties

Orientation

Size

Polish

(0,0,0,1)

10*10*1mm3

Both sides

(1,1,-2,0)

10*10*1mm3

Both sides

(1,-1,0,0)

10*10*1mm3

Both sides

Growth method

Seeded Vapor-Phase Free Growth Technology

Structure

hexagonal

Lattice Parameters

a = 4.1369Å 
c = 6.7161Å

Growth Direction

<0001>

Standard orientations

(0,0,0,1) (1,1,-2,0) (1,-1,0,0) (1,1,-2,0)

is widely used as substrate for epitaxial growth.

Specific Resistivity

1... 1 x 1010 Ohm cm

Hall Mobility

650(e) cm2/ V x sec

EPD

< 5 x 105/cm2

Polishing

one side or both sides mechanically polished
If you wish to use these substrates for epitaxial growth, 
it is necessary to do chemical treating before epi-growth at your side.

Standard size

10 x 10 x 1 mm3

Max ingot diameter

40mm

Cadmium Telluride
CdTe

Cadmium Telluride
CdTe
CdTe CdHgTe

CdTe

CdHgTe

Crystal properties

Application fields:

IR optics, substrates, detectors, 
crystal pieces for vacuum deposition.

Structure

Cubic zincblende

Density

5.85 g/cm3

Knoop Hardness

45 kg/mm2

Young’s Modulus

3.7 x1011 dyne/cm2

Rupture Modulus

2.2 x108 dyne/cm2

Poisson Ratio

0.41

Coef. of Thermal Expansion

5.9 x 10-6/K

Specific Heat

0.21 J/gK

Thermal conductivity (at 25 oC)

0.06 W/cmK

Max. Transmittance (l =7-12 μm)

66 %

Absorption Coef. (l =10.6 μm)

£ 0.003 cm-1 (including 2 surfaces)

Thermo-Optic Coef. (dn/dT)

11.0 (l =10.6 μm)

Refractive index (l =10.6 μm)

2.69

Max. IR-optic blank diameter/length

l 40 x 45 mm

Max. single crystal diameter/length

l 40 x 30 mm

Cadmium Tungstate
CdWO4

Cadmium Tungstate
CdWO4

Single crystals

 

 

Application fields

Scintillators

 

Structure

Monoclinec

 

Cleavage plane

(010)

 

Melting point

1325oC

 

Density.

7,9 g/cm3

 

Wavelength of max. emission

540 nm

 

Decay constant

5000 ns

 

Refractive index at emission maximum

2,25

 

Light output relative to NAI (T1)

40 %

 

Max. crystal diameter

50,8 mm

 

Calcite Calcium Carbonate
CaCO3

Calcite Calcium Carbonate
CaCO3

Crystal properties

 

Crystal Type

trigonal

Transmission Range

0.25 ... 2.3 µm

Refractive Index

no=1,6654 / ne=1,4898 @ 509 nm

Density

2.711 g/cm3 @ 25 °C

Melting Point

894 °C (decomposes)

Molecular Weight

101.9613

Thermal Expansion

13 × 10–6 / K

Hardness (Knoop)

3 Mohs

Young’s Modulus

69.9 GPa

Shear Modulus

35 GPa

Bulk Modulus

98 GPa

Solubility in Water

none

Crystal Structure

Single crystal, synthetic

Application

polarisers

List of Optical Crystals

Materials

Refractive Index

Transmission
Range (mm)

Density
(g/cm³)

Thermal Expansion  
Coefficient (10-6/K) 

BK7 glass

1.5164 (588 nm)

0.330 – 2.1

2.51

7.5 

SF11 glass

1.78472 (588 nm)

0.370 – 2.5

4.74

6.8 

F2 glass

1.62004 (588 nm)

0.420 – 2.0

3.61

8.2 

Fused Silica

1.4858 (308 nm)

0.185 – 2.5

2.20

0.55 

CaF2

1.399  (5.0 mm)

 0.170 – 7.8

 3.18

 18.85 

BaF2

 1.460 (3.0 um)

 0.15 – 12.0

 4.88

 18.4 

Sapphire

1.755 (1.0mm)

0.180 – 4.5

3.98

8.4 

Silicon

3.4179 (10mm)

 1.200 – 7.0

 2.33

 4.15 

Ge

4.003 (10 mm)

 1.900 – 16

 5.33

 6.1 

ZnSe

2.40  (10 mm)

0.630 – 18

5.27

7.8 

ZnS

2.2 (10mm)

0.380 –14

4.09

6.5 

LiF

1.39 (500 nm)

 0.150 – 5.2

 2.64

37 

KBr

1.526 (10 mm)

 0.280 – 22

 2.75

43 

 MgF2

no =  1.3836
ne = 1.3957 (405 nm)

0.130 – 7.0

7.37

a: 13.7
b: 8.48

YVO4

no = 1.9500
ne = 2.1554 (1.3 mm)

0.400 – 5.0

4.22

a: 4.46
b: 11.37

Calcite

no =  1.6557
ne = 1.4852 (633 nm)

0.210 – 2.3

2.75

a: 24.39
b: 5.68

Quartz

no =  1.5427
ne = 1.5518 (633 nm)

0.200 – 2.3

2.65

7.07

α-BBO

no =  1.6749
n= 1.5555 (532 nm)

0.190 – 3.5

3.85

a: 4.0
c: 36

LiNbO3

no =  2.2863
ne = 2.2027 (633 nm)

0.370 – 4.5

4.64

a: 16.7
c: 2.0

Calcium Fluoride
CaF2

Calcium Fluoride
CaF2
 

Crystal properties

Crystal Type

cubic, CaF2 type structure

 

Transmission Rang:

0.13 ... 12 µm

Density

3.18 g/cm3

Melting Point

1360, 1395 °C

Molecular Weight

78.0768

Thermal Conductivity

9.71 W/(m K)

Specific Heat:

854 J/(kg K)

Thermal Expansion

18.7; 18.85; 24.0 × 10–6 / K

Hardness (Knoop)

158.3

Young’s Modulus

75.8 GPa

Shear Modulu:

33.77 GPa

Bulk Modulus

82.71 GPa

Rupture Modulus

36.5 MPa

Elastic Coefficient:

C11 = 164 
C12 = 53 
C44 = 33.7 GPa

Dielectric Constant

6.76 @ 27 °C

Solubility in Wate:

0.0017 g / 100 g @ 20 °C

Cleavage Planes

(111)

Applicatio:

Spectroscopy, astronomy, lithography 
laser windows for Excimer lasers 
scintillators (CaF2:Eu)

Remarks

deliverable in IR, UV and DUV quality

List of Optical Crystals

Materials

Refractive Index

Transmissio n
Range (mm)

Density
(g/cm³)

Thermal Expansion  
Coefficient (10-6/K) 

BK7 glass

1.5164 (588 nm)

0.330 – 2.1

2.51

7.5 

SF11 glass

1.78472 (588 nm)

0.370 – 2.5

4.74

6.8 

F2 glass

1.62004 (588 nm)

0.420 – 2.0

3.61

8.2 

Fused Silica

1.4858 (308 nm)

0.185 – 2.5

2.20

0.55 

CaF2

1.399  (5.0 mm)

 0.170 – 7.8

 3.18

 18.85 

BaF2

 1.460 (3.0 um)

 0.15 – 12.0

 4.88

 18.4 

Sapphire

1.755 (1.0mm)

0.180 – 4.5

3.98

8.4 

Silicon

3.4179 (10mm)

 1.200 – 7.0

 2.33

 4.15 

Ge

4.003 (10 mm)

 1.900 – 16

 5.33

 6.1 

ZnSe

2.40  (10 mm)

0.630 – 18

5.27

7.8 

ZnS

2.2 (10mm)

0.380 –14

4.09

6.5 

LiF

1.39 (500 nm)

 0.150 – 5.2

 2.64

37 

KBr

1.526 (10 mm)

 0.280 – 22

 2.75

43 

 MgF2

no =  1.3836  ne = 1.3957 (405 nm)

0.130 – 7.0

7.37

a: 13.7         b: 8.48 

YVO4

no = 1.9500  ne = 2.1554 (1.3 mm)

0.400 – 5.0

4.22

a: 4.46       b: 11.37 

Calcite

no =  1.6557  ne = 1.4852 (633 nm)

0.210 – 2.3

2.75

a: 24.39        b: 5.68 

Quartz

no =  1.5427  ne = 1.5518 (633 nm)

0.200 – 2.3

2.65

7.07 

α-BBO

no =  1.6749  n= 1.5555 (532 nm)

0.190 – 3.5

3.85

a: 4.0           c: 36 

LiNbO3

no =  2.2863  ne = 2.2027 (633 nm)

0.370 – 4.5

4.64

a: 16.7          c: 2.0 

Calcium Neodymium Aluminate
CaNdAlO4

Calcium Neodymium Aluminate
CaNdAlO4

Crystal properties

Crystal growth method

Czochralski

Crystal growth orientation

(100) or (110)

Maximum size

15 mm * 20 mm * 50 mm

Crystallographic properties

Crystallographic structure

K2NiF4 – Structure
a = b = 3.843Å
c = 12.68 Å

Twinning structure

Twinfree

Colour

Violet

Physical properties

Density

5.527 g/cm3

Melting point

1860 °C

Hardness

NDA

Thermal expansion coefficient

8.67 ± 0.02 10-6 K-1

Dielectric constant

20

Dielectric loss tangent (10GRz)

2 * 10-5

Electrical character

Dielectric

X-ray properties

Orientation

(100), (110)
Other orientations on request

Calcium Tungstate
CaWO4

Calcium Tungstate
CaWO4

Standard orientations

(010) - (100) -(001) - (110) - (111) all others on request

Structure

Tetragonal, Scheelit

Lattice constants

a = 5,25 A b = 11,40 A

Color

colorless

 

Comparison, GSO, BGO, CWO, NaJ

Properties of scintillation Crystals

Crystal

Item

BGO

Bi4Ge3O12

CWO

CdWO4

Effective atomic number

75

65

Density (g/cm³)

7.13

7.90

Decay constant (ns)

300

5000

Light output (%)

12

39

Maximum emission wavelagth (nm)

480

540

Refractive index

2.15

5.25

Sensitivity to moisture

None

None

Cleavage

None

Yes

Attenuation coefficient

X-ray  150 KeV

9.84

7.64

(cm-1)

Y-ray  511 KeV

0.955

0.856

 

Characteristics

Application

GSO

Short decay time

High performance

Positron CT

BGO

Better absorption of

Positron CT

Radioactive rays

Detection of high energy

Because of its large

Partidle in the field of

Effective atomic number

Fundamental physics

CWO

Large light output

X-ray CT

Which enables the use

 

Of silicon photo diode

 

Cassiterite
SnO2 

Cassiterite
SnO2 

Crystal Properties

 

Crystal growth method

Natural

Crystal orientation

(001) (100) (110) (111) others on request

Maximum size

up to 10 x 10 mm

Crystallographic properties

a = 4,73 A
C = 3,18 A

Crystallographic structure

tetragonal

Twinning structure

natural defects

Colour

dark yellow brownish

Density

6,90 g/cm³

Hardness

7,0

Cerium (1V) oxide
CeO2

Cerium (1V) oxide
CeO2

Crystal properties

 

Crystal growth method

Skull Melting process

Crystal growth orientation

(001), (111), (110)

Maximum size

ca. 7x7x10 mm

Variations

Dopands on request

 

 

Crystal properties

 

Crystallographic structure

a = 5,411 A

Mineralogical synonyms

None

Twinning structure

Twinfree

Colour

Black to dark blue

Density

7,215 g/cm³

Melting point

2400 °C

Boiling point

3500 °C

Hardnes

7 (Mohs)

Chromium doped Forsterite
Cr : Mg2SiO4

Chromium doped Forsterite
Cr : Mg2SiO4

Crystal properties

Chemical Formula

Cr:Mg2SiO4

Concentration

~3 – 6 x 1018 cm³

Melting Point

1890 °C

Density

3.22 g/cm³

Hardness (Mohs)

7

Thermal Expansion Coefficient

9.5 x 10-6

Thermal Conductivity

8 W /m /K (300 K)

Stimulated Emission Cross Section

1.44 x 10-19 cm-2

Relaxation Time of Terminal Lasing Level

<10 ps

Dadiative Lifetime

25 ms

Spontaneous Fluorescence

2.7 ms

Loss Coefficient

0.02 cm-1

Refractive Index

1.635

Spectroscopic and Laser Properties

Major Pumping Bands

850 – 1200 nm

600 – 850 nm

350 – 550 nm

Fluorescence Band

680 – 1400 nm

Room-temperature Fluorescence Lifetinme

~ 3 ms

Lasing Wavelenght (center)

1235 nm (pulsed)
1244 nm (CW)

Spectral Bandwith

30 nm (pulsed)
1244 nm (CW)

Typical Slope Efficiency

23 % (pulsed)
38 % (CW)

Tuning Range

1167 – 1345 nm

Gain Cross Section

~ 1.45 x 10-19 cm²

Chromium doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet
Cr4+:YAG

Chromium Doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet
Cr4+:YAG

Basic Properties

Crystal Formula

Cr3+:Y3A15O12

Crystal Structure

Cubic, Garnet

Density

4.56 g/cm³

Mohs Hardness

8.5

Damage Threshold

>500MW / cm²

Refractive Index

1.82 @ 1064 nm

Cobalt (II) Oxide
CoO

Cobalt (II) Oxide
CoO
Cobalt Oxide

Molar mass

74.9326 g/mol

Appearance

black

Density

6.44 g/cm3 [1]

Melting point

1933 °C, 2206 K, 3511 °F

Crystal structure

cubic, cF8

lattice constant

4.26 Å

Space group

Fm3m, No. 225

Crystalline Quartz
SiO2

Crystalline Quartz
SiO2

Transmission Range

0.18 ... 3.6 µm

Refractive Index

no= 1.6775, ne= 1.6899 @ 185 nm 
no= 1.5709, ne= 1.5809 @ 325 nm 
no= 1.5482, ne= 1.5575 @ 508 nm 
no= 1.5423, ne= 1.5513 @ 644 nm 
no= 1.5201, ne= 1.5282 @ 2.05 µm 
no= 1.4995, ne= 1.5070 @ 3.00 µm

dn / dT

–6.5 ×10–7 / K || Y, –5.5 ×10–7 / K _|_ Y

Density

2.648 g/cm3

Melting Point

1700 °C

Molecular Weight

60.08

Thermal Conductivity

1.4 W/(m K)

Specific Heat

787 J/(kg K) @ 25 °C

Thermal Expansion

5 ×10–7

Hardness (Knoop)

461 @ 200 g, 741 @ 500 g indenter load

Young's Modulus

76.5 GPa _|_ Y , 97.2 GPa || Y

Shear Modulus

36.4 GPa / 57,13 GPa

Bulk Modulus

98.98 GPa

Elastic Coefficient

C11 = 86.75 / C12 = 6.87 / C13 = 11.3 /
C33 = 106.8 / C44 = 57.86 GPa

Dielectric Constant

3.9 / 4.34

Solubility in Water

insoluble

Crystal Structure

single crystal

Cleavage Planes

none

Orientation-plan Quartz

AT cut = + 35from Z towards Y

BT cut = - 49from Z towards Y

CT cut = + 38from Z towards Y

DT cut = - 52o from Z towards Y

ET cut = - 66from Z towards Y

FT cut = - 57from Z towards Y

List of Optical Crystals

Materials

Refractive Index

Transmission
Range (mm)

Density
(g/cm³)

Thermal Expansion  
Coefficient (10-6/K) 

 

BK7 glass

1.5164 (588 nm)

0.330 – 2.1

2.51

7.5 

 

SF11 glass

1.78472 (588 nm)

0.370 – 2.5

4.74

6.8 

 

F2 glass

1.62004 (588 nm)

0.420 – 2.0

3.61

8.2 

 

Fused Silica

1.4858 (308 nm)

0.185 – 2.5

2.20

0.55 

 

CaF2

1.399  (5.0 mm)

 0.170 – 7.8

3.18

 18.85 

 

BaF2

 1.460 (3.0 um)

 0.15 – 12.0

4.88

 18.4 

 

Sapphire

1.755 (1.0mm)

0.180 – 4.5

3.98

8.4 

 

Silicon

3.4179 (10mm)

 1.200 – 7.0

2.33

 4.15 

 

Ge

4.003 (10 mm)

 1.900 – 16

5.33

 6.1 

 

ZnSe

2.40  (10 mm)

0.630 – 18

5.27

7.8 

 

ZnS

2.2 (10mm)

0.380 –14

4.09

6.5 

 

LiF

1.39 (500 nm)

 0.150 – 5.2

2.64

37 

 

KBr

1.526 (10 mm)

 0.280 – 22

2.75

43 

 

MgF2

no =  1.3836  ne = 1.3957 (405 nm)

0.130 – 7.0

7.37

a: 13.7         b: 8.48 

 

YVO4

no = 1.9500  ne = 2.1554 (1.3 mm)

0.400 – 5.0

4.22

a: 4.46       b: 11.37 

 

Calcite

no =  1.6557  ne = 1.4852 (633 nm)

0.210 – 2.3

2.75

a: 24.39        b: 5.68 

 

Quartz

no =  1.5427  ne = 1.5518 (633 nm)

0.200 – 2.3

2.65

7.07 

 

α-BBO

no =  1.6749  n= 1.5555 (532 nm)

0.190 – 3.5

3.85

a: 4.0           c: 36 

 

LiNbO3

 no =  2.2863  ne = 2.2027 (633 nm)

0.370 – 4.5

4.64

a: 16.7          c: 2.0 

 

Cuprite single crystal (natural)
Copper oxide Cu2O

Cuprite single crystal (natural)
Copper oxide Cu2O

Crystal Properties

 

Crystal growth method

Natural

Crystal orientation

(001) (100) (110) (111) others on request

Maximum size

up to 10 x 10 mm, standard 4 x 4 mm

Crystallographic properties

a = 4,27 Å
V 77.77 Å
Z = 2

Crystallographic symmetry

cubic (4/m 3  2/m)

Crystal system

Cubic hexoctahedral

Twinning structure

no, except natural defects

Mohs scale hardness

3.5 to 4

Diaphaneity

Transparent, translucent

Specific gravity

6.14 g/cm3

Colour

Dark red to conchineal red

Refractive index

n = 2.849

Pleochroism

Visible

Dolomite - Calcium Magnesium Carbonate
CaMg(CO3)2

Dolomite - Calcium Magnesium Carbonate
CaMg(CO3)2

Crystal symmetry

Trigonal rhombohedral, 3

Lattice Constant

ahex = 4.8012(1) Å
c = 16.002 
Å
Z = 3

Identification

 

Color

White

Crystal system

Trigonal

Cleavage

Perfect on {1011}, rhombohedral cleavage

Mohs scale hardness

3,5 to 4

Specific gravity

2.84 - 2.86

Optical properties

Uniaxial (-)

Refractive index

n = 1.679 - 1.681
n
ԑ = 1.500

Birefringence

δ = 0.179 -0.181

Ferberite ( Fe++WO4 )
FeWO4 

Ferberite ( Fe++WO4)
FeWO4

Color

Black

Cleavage

{010} Perfect, {100} Parting, {102} Parting

Density

7.5 - 7.4, Average = 7.45

Diaphaneity

Nearly opaque

Hardness

4.5 - Between Fluorite and Apatite

Gladstone-Dale

Cl meas = -0.016 (Superior) - where the Cl = (1-KPDmeas/KC)
Cl calc  =  0.002 (Superior) - where the Cl = (1-KPDcalc/KC)
KPDcalc = 0.1748, KPDmeas = 0.1778, KC = 0.175
Ncalc = 2.3 - 2.33

Optical Data

Biaxial (+) 
a = 2.255, b = 2.305. g = 2.414
bire = 0.1590, 2V(Calc) = 72, 2V(Meas) = 68

RL Bireflectance

Weak

Refectivity

400nm

16.50

19.50

420nm

16.40

19.20

440nm

16.30

18.90

460nm

16.20

18.70

480nm

15.90

18.50

500nm

16.00

18.70

520nm

16.00

18.70

540nm

16.00

18.70

560nm

16.00

18.70

580nm

15.80

18.60

600nm

15.80

18.60

620nm

15.70

18.60

640nm

15.60

18.50

660nm

15.50

18.30

680nm

15.40

18.10

700nm

15.50

18.00

Composition

Molecular Weight = 303.69 gm

Axial Ratios

a:b:c = 0.838:1:0.8661

Cell Dimensions

a = 4.76
b = 5.68
c = 4.92
Z = 2
beta = 90.016° 
V = 133.02 Den(Cal) = 7.58

Crystal System

Monoclinic - Prismatic 
H-M Symbol (2/m) Space Group: P 2/c

Orientations

[110]  [110] [100] [011] [001]

Electron Density

Bulk Density (Electron Density) = 6.59 gm/cc
Specific Gravity of Ferberite = 7.58 gm/cc

Fermion Index

Fermion Index = 0.09
Boson Index = 0.91

Photoelectric

PEFerberite = 757.55 barns/electron
U = PEFerberite x rElectron Density = 4,991.71 barns/cc

Forsterite
Mg2SiO4

Forsterite
Mg2SiO4

Properties

Parameter unit

Values

Crystal dimensions,
Length
Diameter

mm


100
25

Lattice:

 

Rhombic

Unit cell parameters 25

Å

a = 4.77

 

 

b = 10.28

 

 

c = 6.00

Refraction indexes

 

Ng = 1.670

 

 

Nm = 1.651

 

 

Np = 1.635

Density

g/cm3

3.217

Mohs hardness

 

7

Axial characteristics

 

Biaxial

Melting point

oC

1895

Density of energy

J/cm2

2

Absorption cross section

cm2

1.88 ´ 1018

Thermal expansion coefficient

 

9.5 ´ 10-6

Thermal conductivity

W/cmoK

0.08 (300oK)

Franklinite
ZnFe2O4

Franklinite
ZnFe2O4

Crystal system

cubic

Mohs scale hardness

6 - 6,5

Specific gravity

5.07 - 5.22

Lattice constant

8,42

Cleavage planes

{111}

Orientations

{111} {110} {100}

Gallium Arsenide
Semi-Insulating (VB)

Gallium Arsenide
Semi-Insulating ( VB )

Growth method

Vertical Bridgman

Dopant

Undoped

Orientation

(100); and off oriented

Wafer Diameter

2.000 ± 0.015

3.000 ± 0.025 inches

Wafer Thickness

500 ± 25

625 ± 25 microns

Surface

Polished both sides

Surface Flatness

£ 2 microns/Inch of Diameter

Etch Pit Density

< 10,000 / cm² 
< 5,000 / cm²

Mobility

³ 4,000 cm² / v-sec.

Resistivity

³ 1 x 10ohm – cm, after thermal anneal

Gallium Arsenide
Semi-Conducting ( HB/VB )

Gallium Arsenide
Semi-Conducting ( HB/VB )

Growth method

Horizontal Brigman and Vertical Bridgman

Conductivity

N or P type

Orientation

(100), and off oriented ± .5 degree
Other orientations and tolerance
to ± .1 degree available on request

 

Wafer Diameter

2.000 ± 0.015 
3.000 ± 0.025 inches
Other diameters available on request

Wafer Thickness

400 ± 25
500 ± 25 microns
Other thicknesses to 250 microns available on request

Rectangular
Wafer Sizes

25 mm x 45 mm (+0, - 1 mm)
38 mm x 45 mm (+0, - 1 mm)
45 mm x 45 mm (+0, - 1 mm)
52 mm x 57 mm (+0.6, - 0.4 mm)
All rectangular wafers sized with (110) cleavage plane parallel to wafer sides.

Surface

As Cut*
Polished one side etched back side
Polished both sides

Etch Pit
Density Ranges

£ 2,000
£ 5,000 
£ 10,000 
> 10,000 cm-²

Carrier Concentration

N = 5 x 1016 – 4 x 1018 cm-³
P = 6 x 1017 – 3 x 1019 cm-³

Mobility

N = 1,200 – 2.400 cm² / v-sec
P = 40 – 100 cm² / v-sec

Resistivity

N = 1.1 – 15.0 x 10-³ ohm-cm
P = 0.8 – 12.0 x 10-² ohm-cm

Gadolinium Gallium Garnet doped
Gd3Ga5O12

Gallium Gadolinium Garnet doped
 

Gadolinium Gallium Garnet (GGG)
Subsituted Gadolinium Gallium Garnet (SGGG)
 
Gd3(Mg, Zr) Ga5O12

Gallium Gadolinium Garnet (GGG)
Subsituted Gadolinium Gallium Garnet (SGGG)
 
 

Crystal properties

Crystal growth method

Czochralski

 

Crystal growth orientation

(100), (111)

 

Maximum size

3 inch diameter

 

Variations

Dopands on request

 

Crystallographic properties

Crystallographic structure

Cubic
a = 12.383 Å
a = 12.505 Å SGGG

Mineralogical

Garnet

Twinning structure

Perfect

Colour

Colourless / Brownish SGGG

Physical properties

Density

7.09 g/cm3

Melting point

1730 °C

Hardness

7.5 (Mohs)

Dielectric constant

30

Dielectric loss tangent (10 GHz)

ca. 3.0 * 10_4

Optical properties

Transmission range

0.3 to 7.0 mm

Refraction index:

nd = 1.9708 at 577 nm

n1.9567

nc 1.9577 at 625nm

n1.9567

nc 1.9500 at 2000nm

n1.9567

nc 1.9454 at 5000nm

X-ray properties

Orientation: (100), (111)

 

Gallium Phosphide ( LEC )
n-type ( GaP:S, GaP:Te )

Gallium Phosphide ( LEC )
n-type ( GaP:S, GaP:Te )

Chart

Orientation

 <100> ± 20'  

 

 

<111> ± 20'  

 

 

 4 ÷ 6° off <100> towards <110> 

 

Diameter 

51 ± 0,5 mm 

 

Thickness  

375 ± 20 mm 

 

 

400 ± 20 mm 

 

Dislocation  density (EPD) 

< 1*105 cm-2 

 

Carrier  concentration 

3,5*1017 ÷ 2*1018 cm-3

 

Dopant 

S or Te 

Galium Phosphide VGF crystal

GaP Wafers

Diam.

Type

Orient.

C.C.

EPD

Thickness

Surface

Grade

2"

P/Zn

(100)

1-2x10E18

1-2x10E5

300 mic.

2-SIDE

EPI

2"

Undoped

(100)

<1x10E16

<2x10E5

300 mic.

2-SIDE

EPI

2"

N/S

(100)

1-2x10E18

<2x10E5

300 mic.

2-SIDE

EPI

2" Optical

Undoped

(100)

<1x10E16

 

300 mic.

2-SIDE

EPI

2" Electronic

Undoped

(100)

<1x10E16

 

300 mic.

2-SIDE

EPI

2" Optical

Undoped

(100)

<1x10E16

 

300 mic.

2-SIDE

EPI

Germanium
Ge

Germanium crystal growth
Ge

Crystal properties

Crystal Type:

cubic, diamond structure

 

Transmission Range

1.8 ... 23 µm

 

Refractive Index

4.0034 @ 9.72 µm, 
4.0028 @ 10.6 µm

 

Reflective Loss

52.9 % @ 10 µm

 

Density

5.323 g/cm3

 

Melting Point

956, 959, 942, 938 °C

 

Molecular Weight

72.59

 

Thermal Conductivity

58.61 W/(m K)

 

Specific Heat

310 J/(kg K) @ 25 °C

 

Thermal Expansion

5.5×10–6 / K, 6.1×10–6 / K

 

Hardness (Knoop)

780

 

Young’s Modulus

102.7 <100>, 155.3 <111> GPa

Shear Modulus

67 <100> GPa

Bulk Modulus

77.2 GPa

Rupture Modulus

93 MPa

Elastic Coefficient:

C11 = 129 / C12 = 48.3 / C44 = 67.1 GPa

Dielectric Constant

16.6 @ f = 9.37 GHz

Solubility in Water

Insoluble

Application

Electronics lenses, band pass filters, thermography

Remarks

laser damage threshold: 2.9 ...3.3 GW / cm2

Germanium substrates

 

List of Optical Crystals

Materials

Refractive Index

Transmission
Range (mm)

Density
(g/cm³)

Thermal Expansion  
Coefficient (10-6/K) 

BK7 glass

1.5164 (588 nm)

0.330 – 2.1

2.51

7.5 

SF11 glass

1.78472 (588 nm)

0.370 – 2.5

4.74

6.8 

F2 glass

1.62004 (588 nm)

0.420 – 2.0

3.61

8.2 

Fused Silica

1.4858 (308 nm)

0.185 – 2.5

2.20

0.55 

CaF2

1.399  (5.0 mm)

 0.170 – 7.8

 3.18

 18.85 

BaF2

 1.460 (3.0 um)

 0.15 – 12.0

 4.88

 18.4 

Sapphire

1.755 (1.0mm)

0.180 – 4.5

3.98

8.4 

Silicon

3.4179 (10mm)

 1.200 – 7.0

 2.33

 4.15 

Ge

4.003 (10 mm)

 1.900 – 16

 5.33

 6.1 

ZnSe

2.40  (10 mm)

0.630 – 18

5.27

7.8 

ZnS

2.2 (10mm)

0.380 –14

4.09

6.5 

LiF

1.39 (500 nm)

 0.150 – 5.2

 2.64

37 

KBr

1.526 (10 mm)

 0.280 – 22

 2.75

43 

MgF2

no =  1.3836  ne = 1.3957 (405 nm)

0.130 – 7.0

7.37

a: 13.7         b: 8.48 

YVO4

no = 1.9500  ne = 2.1554 (1.3 mm)

0.400 – 5.0

4.22

a: 4.46       b: 11.37 

Calcite

no =  1.6557  ne = 1.4852 (633 nm)

0.210 – 2.3

2.75

a: 24.39        b: 5.68 

Quartz

no =  1.5427  ne = 1.5518 (633 nm)

0.200 – 2.3

2.65

7.07 

α-BBO

no =  1.6749  n= 1.5555 (532 nm)

0.190 – 3.5

3.85

a: 4.0           c: 36 

LiNbO3

no =  2.2863  ne = 2.2027 (633 nm)

0.370 – 4.5

4.64

a: 16.7          c: 2.0 

Goethite - Alfa iron oxy Hydroxide
α-FeO(OH)

Goethite - Alfa iron oxy Hydroxide
α-FeO(OH)

Crystal system

Orthorhombic 2/m2/m2/m

Color

Yellowish to dark brown

Clavage

Perfect 010

Fracture

uneven to splintery

Mohs scale hardness

5 - 5.5

Specific gravity

3.3 - 3.4

Refractiveindex

Opaque to sub-translucent

Unit Ce4

a =  4.65 Å
b = 10.02 Å
c =  3.04 Å

Hematite single crystal (Natural)
Fe2O3

Hematite single crystal (Natural)
Fe2O3

Crystal properties

 

 

Crystal growth method

Natural

Crystal orientation

(0001) (1010) (1120 others on request

Maximum size

up to 20 x 20 mm

Crystallographic properties

a = 5,04 A C = 13,77 A

Crystallographic structure

hexagonal

Twinning structure

natural defects

Colour

black

Density

5,20 g/cm³

Hardness

6,5

Indium Antimonide
InSb

Indium Antimonide
InSb

Crystal properties

Orientation

(100) +/- 0.5°

 

Type

N-type

 

Undoped

Carrier concentration

(4-6) x 1014/cm3 at 77K

EPD

< 200 /cm2

 

50.8 mm ΦF x 450 μmT

Polish

One side B-face EPI polished, back side Lapped and Etched

Orientation Flat

(0,1,-1) +/- 1°

InSb Wafers

Diam.

Type

Orien.

C.C.

EPD

Thickness

Surface

Grade

2"

N/Undoped

(100)

4-7x10E14

<200

450 mic.

2-SIDE

EPI

2"

N/Undoped

(111)A

4-x10E14

<200

450 mic.

2-SIDE

EPI

2"

N/Te

(100)

3-5x10E17

<200

450 mic.

1-SIDE

EPI

Indium Arsenide
InAs

Indium Arsenide
InAs

Crystal properties

Orientation

(100) (110) (111) +/- 0.5° 
with orientation flat

 

Crystal structure

zinc blende

 

Lattice constant

6.058 Å

 

Growth method

LEC

 

Dopant

None

 

Type

N-type

 

Carrier concentration

< 3E16 / cm3

 

Mobility

> 2E4 cm2 / VS

 

EPD

< 5E4 / cm2

 

Melting Point

1215°C

 

Density

5.66 g/cm3

 

Size

30 mmΦF X 500 +/- 20 μmT wafer

 

Polish

one side EPI polished

 

InAs Wafers

Diam.

Type

Orient.

C.C.

EPD

Thickness

Surface

Grade

2"

Zn/P

(100)

 

 

450 mic.

1-SIDE

EPI

2"

Zn/P

(100)

 

 

450 mic.

1-SIDE

EPI

2"

S/N

(100)

 

 

450 mic.

1-SIDE

EPI

Indium Phosphide
InP

Indium Phosphide
InP

Crystal properties

Crystal Type

cubic, a = 5.868A

Orientation

(100)

Growth method

LEC

Resistivity

0.03-0.2 Ohm cm

Type

N-type

 

Undoped

Mobility

3700 - 4000 cm2/ V-S

EPD

< 5 x 1014 /cm2

Carrier concentration

< = 1017 / cm3

Melting Point

1330°C

Size

10 X 10 X 0.5mm3

Polish

1 side or 2 side

Orientation

(111)

Growth method

LEC

Type

N-type

 

Undoped

Mobility

< 3000 cm2/ V-S

Carrier concentration

< 3 X 1016 / cm3

Size

10 X 10 X 0.5mm3

Polish

1 side, B-face

 

 

InP Wafers

Diam.

Type

Orient.

C.C.

EPD

Thickness

Surface

Grade

2"

Fe/SI

(100)

R>10E7

<10E5

500 mic.

1-SIDE

EPI

2"

Fe/SI

(100)

R>10E7

<10E5

500 mic.

2-SIDE

EPI

2"

S/N

(100)

R>10E18

<10E5

450 mic.

1-SIDE

EPI

Langasite
La3Ga5SiO14

Langasite
La3Ga5SiO14

Crystal properties

 

 

Density

5.74 g/cm3

 

Space Group

32

SAW velocity (Vef)

m/s = 2736

Electromechanical coupling coefficient

K²s = 0,38

Temperature coefficient
first order:
second order


TCD a1 = 0
TCD a2 = -6,8*10^-8 (1/C°)^2

Working face

wafer diameter minus 3 mm

Orientation

Primary flat is perpendicular to X' axis 
with accuracy +/-15 min
Yxlt/48.5°/26.6°

Edge chipping

No chipping inside the working area and on the primary flat. Chipping can be accepted outside the working area if the width is less than 0.5 mm, and the cumulative length is less than 5 mm.

Polishing

No dimples, cracks, unpolished areas, ontaminants in working area under x50 magnification. Scratches visible at x50 magnification are allowed in working area if their quantity is lower than 3 on one wafer and less than 20 in a lot of one hundred wafers.

Backside face

Ra>0.2 microns.

 

 

 

 

 

76,2 mm wafers

100 mm wafers

Diameter

76.2 mm +/- 0.2 mm

100.0 mm +/- 0.15 mm

Thickness

0.50 mm +/- 0.05 mm

0.50 mm +/- 0.05 mm

Primary flat

22 mm +/-2.0 mm

32.5 mm +/-2.5 mm

Flatness (under vacuum)

< 10 mm

< 10 mm

LTV

<2.2 microns 
for the base 20 mm x20mm

<2.2 microns 
or the base 20 mm x20mm

Bow (free wafer)

< 50 mm

< 50 mm

Secondary flat

11 mm +/-2.0 mm

11 mm +/-2.0 mm

Lanthanum Aluminate
LaAlO3

Lanthanum Aluminate
LaAlO3

Crystal properties

Crystal growth method

Czochralski method

 

Crystal growth orientation

(100)

Maximum size

Type a)
Up to Æ 3 inch

Crystallographic properties

Structural typ

Distorted Perovskite

Crystallographic structure

Rhombohedral
a= 5.357 Å ( x = 60°6')

Perovskite (only for calculations)
a = 3.863 Å ( x = 90°5')

Twinning structure

Orthogonal twin planes along (100)

Colour

Colourless to very light brown

Physical properties

Density

6.52 g/m3

Melting poin

2080 °C

Hardness

5.9 (Mohs)

Thermal expansion coefficient

1.0 * 10-5 K-1

Dielectric constant

25

Dielectric loss tangent

3* 10-4 at 300 °K
6 * 10-5 at 77 °K

X-ray properties

Orientation

Type a) (100), (110), (111)

Lanthanum Beryllate
La2Be2O5

Lanthanum Beryllate
La2Be2O5

Properties

Mean dislocation density, cm-2

100

Molecular weight

375.82

Syngony

monoclinic

Symmetry class

2m - c2k6

Spezial group

C2 / C1

Crystal lattice parameters, Angström unit (E)

a = 7.5356
b = 7.3476
c = 7.4387

Density, g / cm3

6.061

Melting point, oC

1361

Axial characteristics

biaxial

Refraction indexes

nx = 1.9641
ny = 1.9974
nz = 2.0348

Mohs hardness

6,5

Charakteristics

Nd3+ concentration, at %

1 - 5

Oscillation wavelength

1.07 - 1.08

Transition cross-section, cm-2

1.5 ´ 10-19

Absorption loss onl = 1060 nm, cm-1

 

Oscillation boundaries depending on Nd3+ concentration and orentation. J (laser threshold as a function of ND3+concentration and orientation, J)

3 - 12

Rods Specification

1. Rods with round cross-sections are manufactured

2. Sizes and processing

Diameter tolerance
Length tolerance
End faces parallelism
Surface quality
Flatness
Orientation tolerance

+/-0.1mm
+/-0.5mm
10”
10-5 scratch-dig
l/10
> 5o

3. Rod’s orientation

Diameter
Length

x,y,z
4 - 12 mm
50 -100 mm

LanthanumStrontiumAluminumTantalumOxide
LSAT

Lanthanum Strontium Aluminum Tantalum Oxide
LSAT

Crystal properties

Crystal growth method

Czochralski

 

Crystal growth orientation

(100)  (110)  (111) 

 

Orientation accuracy

± 0.5° 

 

Crystal structure

cubic  m3m   Mixed  Peroviskite 

Approximately Molecular Form

(La0.3Sr0.7)  (Al0.65Ta0.35)O3

Cell parameter

a = 7.737 Å 

Melting point

2113° K 

Density

6.64 g / cm3 

Specific Heat

5.1 W / m·k 

Thermal Expansion (10-6k-1)

8.2 (295° K)     11 (973° K)

Dielectric Constant (εr)

22.7 (291° K / 1 MHz)      21.7 (90° K / 10 kHz)

Dielectric loss (tgδ)

7.47 x 10-5 (90° K / 10 kHz) 

Hardness (Mohs)

6.5 

Color

None or Light yellow (if needed)

Led Molybdate
PbMoO4

Led molybdate
PbMoO4

Growth Direction

< 100 >

Dimension

Ø 35 x (40 – 80) mm³

Optical Homogeneity

< 10-5 /cm

Range of Transmission

0.42 – 5.55 mm

Density (g/cm³)

6.95

Wavelength

0.633mm

Mode and Propagation Direction

L(001)

Acoustic Velocity (105 cm/S)

3.63

Refractive Index

2.262

2.386

Figure

M1 (10-7 cm ·s2/g)

108

113

of Merit

M2 (10-13 s3/g)

36.3

36.1

(FOM)

M3 (10-13 cm ·s2/g)

29.8

31.3

Lepidocrocite - Gamma iron oxy Hydroxide
γ-FeO(OH)

Lepidocrocite - Gamma iron oxy Hydroxide
γ-FeO(OH)

Crystal symmetry

Orthorhombic (2/m 2/m 2/m) - dipyramidal

Unit cell

a =  3.88 Å
b = 12,54 Å
c =  3.07 Å
Z =  4

Identifikation

 

Color

Ruby-red

Crystal habit

Flattened scales aggregated

Crystal sytem

orthorhombic

Cleavage

{010} Perfect

Mohs scale hardness

5

Diaphaneity

Transparent

Specific gravity

4

Optical properties

Biaxial (-)

Refractive index

nα =1.940
nβ = 2.200
nγ = 2.510

Birefrigence

δ = 0,570

Pleochroism

Strong; 
X = colorless to yellow
Y= orange, yellow, dark red-orange
Z = orange, yellow, darker red-orange

2V angle

Measured: 83°

Lithium Aluminium Oxide
LiAlO3

Lithium Aluminium Oxide
LiAlO3

Crystal Specifications

Substrate

LiAlO3

Crystal structure

422 tetragonal

Cell parameter

a = 5.1687 Å
c = 6.2676 Å

Melting pointø(°K÷)

1973

Density ø(g/cm3÷)

2.615

Thermal expansion (x 10-6k-1)

αaa = 7.1 
αac = 15 
(393-973°K)

Dielectric constant (εer)

 

Hardness (Mohs)

6.5

Growth Method

Czockralski

Specifications

Standard Size

Ф?20, 20 x 20, 10 x 10, 10 x 5, 10 x 3 mm
or customer design

Thickness

0.5 mm, 1.0 mm

Thickness tolerance

±0.02 mm or 0.005 mm for special order

Polish

one side or two sides

Orientation

(100) (110) (111)

Orientation accuracy

± 0.5°

Edge Orientation accuracy

2° or 1° for special order

Cut with special tilt angle

available (tilt angle: 1° - 45°)

Micro Roughness Ra

≤= 5 Å (5 μm × 5 μm)

Lithium Fluoride
LiF

Lithium Fluoride
LiF

Crystal properties

Crystal Type

cubic, NaCl type structure

Transmission Range

0.12 ... 9 µm

Refractive Index

1.37327 @ 2,5 µm

Reflective Loss

4.4 % @ 4.0 µm

Reststrahlen

25 µm

Density

2.63905 g/cm3

Melting Point

870; 848 °C

Molecular Weight

25.9394

Thermal Conductivity

4.01 W/(m K)

Specific Heat

1562 J/(kg K)

Thermal Expansion

37 × 10–6 / K @ 0...100 °C

Hardness (Knoop)

102 – 103 (indenter load: 600 g)

Young’s Modulus

64.79 GPa

Shear Modulus

55.14 GPa

Bulk Modulus

62.03 GPa

Rupture Modulus

10.8 MPa

Elastic Coefficient

C11 = 112
C12 = 45.6
C44 = 3.2 GPa

Dielectric Constant

9.0 @ 25 °C, f = 100...109 Hz

Solubility in Water

0.28 g / 100 g @ 18 °C

Crystal Structure

Single crystal, synthetic

Cleavage Planes

(100)

Standard Diameter

145 mm, 200 mm

Application

X-ray monochromator plates 
optical material for DUV applications

Remarks

tends to create colour centers

 

List of Optical Crystals

Materials

Refractive Index

Transmission
Range (mm)

Density
(g/cm³)

Thermal Expansion  
Coefficient (10-6/K) 

 

BK7 glass

1.5164 (588 nm)

0.330 – 2.1

2.51

7.5 

 

SF11 glass

1.78472 (588 nm)

0.370 – 2.5

4.74

6.8 

 

F2 glass

1.62004 (588 nm)

0.420 – 2.0

3.61

8.2 

 

Fused Silica

1.4858 (308 nm)

0.185 – 2.5

2.20

0.55 

 

CaF2

1.399  (5.0 mm)

 0.170 – 7.8

3.18

 18.85 

 

BaF2

 1.460 (3.0 um)

 0.15 – 12.0

4.88

 18.4 

 

Sapphire

1.755 (1.0mm)

0.180 – 4.5

3.98

8.4 

 

Silicon

3.4179 (10mm)

 1.200 – 7.0

2.33

 4.15 

 

Ge

4.003 (10 mm)

 1.900 – 16

5.33

 6.1 

 

ZnSe

2.40  (10 mm)

0.630 – 18

5.27

7.8 

 

ZnS

2.2 (10mm)

0.380 –14

4.09

6.5 

 

LiF

1.39 (500 nm)

 0.150 – 5.2

2.64

37 

 

KBr

1.526 (10 mm)

 0.280 – 22

2.75

43 

 

 MgF2

no =  1.3836
ne = 1.3957
(405 nm)

0.130 – 7.0

7.37

a: 13.7         b: 8.48 

 

YVO4

no = 1.9500
ne = 2.1554
(1.3 mm)

0.400 – 5.0

4.22

a: 4.46       b: 11.37 

 

Calcite

no =  1.6557
ne = 1.4852
(633 nm)

0.210 – 2.3

2.75

a: 24.39        b: 5.68 

 

Quartz

no =  1.5427
ne = 1.5518
(633 nm)

0.200 – 2.3

2.65

7.07 

 

α-BBO

no =  1.6749
n= 1.5555
(532 nm)

0.190 – 3.5

3.85

a: 4.0           c: 36 

 

LiNbO3

 no =  2.2863
ne = 2.2027
(633 nm)

0.370 – 4.5

4.64

a: 16.7          c: 2.0 

 

Lithium Gallate & Lithium Aluminate
LiGaO2 & LiAlO2

Lithium Gallate & Lithium Aluminate
LiGaO2 & LiAlO2

 

LiGaO2

LiAlO2

CrystallineSystem

Orthorhombic

Tetragonal

Lattice Constant

a=5.406Å
b=5.012Å
c=6.379 Å

a=5.17 Å
c=6.26 Å

Lattice mismatchTo GaN

0.2% at (001)ori.

1.4%at (001)ori.

Melting Point

1600oC

1900oC

Density

4.18 g/cm3

2.62 g/cm3

Mohs hardness

7.5

 

Lithium Iodate
LiIO3

Lithium Iodate
LiIO3

Basic Properties

Point group

6

Transparency Range

300 – 5000 nm

Nonlinear Coefficient

d15 = -5.5 x 10-12 m/V

Refractive Index

n0 = 1.8571
ne = 1.7165 (l = 1064 nm)

Sellmeier Equations

n02 =3.415716 + 0.047031 / (l2 – 0.035306) – 0.008801 l2

ne2 = 2.918692 + 0.035145 / (l2 – 0.028224) – 0.003641 l2

Lithium Niobate
LiNbO3 

Lithium Niobate
LiNbO3 

List of Optical Crystals

Materials

Refractive Index

Transmission
Range (mm)

Density
(g/cm³)

Thermal Expansion
Coefficient (10-6/K)

 

BK7 glass

1.5164 (588 nm)

0.330 – 2.1

2.51

7.5 

 

SF11 glass

1.78472 (588 nm)

0.370 – 2.5

4.74

6.8 

 

F2 glass

1.62004 (588 nm)

0.420 – 2.0

3.61

8.2 

 

Fused Silica

1.4858 (308 nm)

0.185 – 2.5

2.20

0.55 

 

CaF2

1.399  (5.0 mm)

 0.170 – 7.8

3.18

 18.85 

 

BaF2

 1.460 (3.0 um)

 0.15 – 12.0

4.88

 18.4 

 

Sapphire

1.755 (1.0mm)

0.180 – 4.5

3.98

8.4 

 

Silicon

3.4179 (10mm)

 1.200 – 7.0

2.33

 4.15 

 

Ge

4.003 (10 mm)

 1.900 – 16

5.33

 6.1 

 

ZnSe

2.40  (10 mm)

0.630 – 18

5.27

7.8 

 

ZnS

2.2 (10mm)

0.380 –14

4.09

6.5 

 

LiF

1.39 (500 nm)

 0.150 – 5.2

2.64

37 

 

KBr

1.526 (10 mm)

 0.280 – 22

2.75

43 

 

MgF2

no=1.3836
ne=1.3957
(405 nm)

0.130 – 7.0

7.37

a: 13.7         b: 8.48 

 

YVO4

no=1.9500
ne=2.1554
(1.3 mm)

0.400 – 5.0

4.22

a: 4.46       b: 11.37 

 

Calcite

no=1.6557
ne=1.4852
(633 nm)

0.210 – 2.3

2.75

a: 24.39        b: 5.68 

 

Quartz

no=1.5427
ne=1.5518
(633 nm)

0.200 – 2.3

2.65

7.07 

 

α-BBO

no=1.6749
ne= 1.5555
(532 nm)

0.190 – 3.5

3.85

a: 4.0           c: 36 

 

LiNbO3

no=2.2863
ne= 2.2027
(633 nm)

0.370 – 4.5

4.64

a: 16.7          c: 2.0 

 

Lithium Tantalate
LiTaO3

Lithium Tantalate
LiTaO3 

Basic Properties

Crystal Structure

Trigonal, Space group R3c, Point group 3 m

Cell Parameters

A = 5.154 Å

C = 13.781 Å

Melting Point

1650 °C

 

Curie Temperature

607 °C

 

Mohs Hardness

5.5

 

Density

7.46 g/cm³

 

Dielectric Constant

εe11 / εe0 51.7

εe33 / εe0 44.5

Elastic Stiffness Coefficient

CE11 2.33 ( X 1011 N/m² )

CE33 2.77 ( X 1011 N/m² )

Piezoelectric Strain Constant

d22 2.4 ( X 10-11 C/N )

d33 0.8 ( X 10-11 C/N )

Transmission Range

400 – 4500 nm

 

Electro.optical coefficients

r33 = 30.4 pm/V

 

Refractive index at 632.8 nm

n0 = 2.176

ne = 2.180

Typical SAW Properties

Cut Type

vs (m/s)

k2s (%)

TCV (10-6 / °C)

TCD (10-6 / °C)

X-112° Y

3295

0.75

-16.50

22.3

Y-Z

3230

0.66

 

35

Lithium Triborate
LiB3O5, LBO

Lithium Triborate
LiB3O5, LBO

Crystal Structure

Orthorhombic, Space group Pna21, Point group mm2

Lattice Parameter

a=8.4473Å 
b=7.3788Å 
c=5.1395Å 
Z=2

Melting Point

About 834°C

Mohs Hardness

6

Density

2.47 g/cm³

Thermal Expansion Coefficient

ax= 10.8 x 10-5/K,
ay= -8.8 x 10-5/K 
az= 3.4 x 10-5/K

Absortion Coefficient

< 0.1 %/cm at 1064 nm

Magnesite - Magnesium Carbonate
MgCO3

Magnesite - Magnesium Carbonate
MgCO3
Magnesite - Magnesium Carbonate

Identification

 

Color

Colorless

Crystal system

Trigonal - Hexagonal
Scalenohedral H-M Symbol32/m
Space Group: R3c

 

 

Lattice constant

arh   = 5.85 Å     a` = 103 20`
ahex = 4.59 Å
chex = 14.87 Å

 

 

Cleavage

[1011] perfect

Mohs scale hardness

3.5 - 4.5

Diaphaneity

Transparent to translucent

Specific gravity

3.0 - 3.2

Optical properties

Unixial (-)

Refractive index

n= 1.508 - 1.510
nԑ= 1.700

Magnesium aluminium spinell
1MgO 3Al2O3:Co Co doped (blue)

Magnesium Fluoride
1MgO 3Al2O3:Co Co doped (blue)
MgAl2O4:Co2+
Magnesium Aluminium Spinell

Dimensions of crystals, mm

 

 

Length

70

 

Diameter

30

 

Syngony

cubic

 

Spatial group

Fd3m

 

Elementary cell parameters, nm

0.8086

 

Modulus of elasticity

2.3´105

 

Density, g/cm3

3.58

 

Mohs hardness

8-9

 

Melting point, °C

2105

 

Refraction index

1.718-1.75

 

CoO concentration, mass.%

0.05-0.3

 

Magnesium Fluoride
MgF2

Magnesium Fluoride
MgF2

Crystal properties

Crystal Type

Rutile type structure

Transmission Range

0.11 ... 7.5 µm

Reststrahlen

20.0 µm

Density

3.177 g/cm3

Melting Point

1255 °C

Molecular Weight

62.3018

Thermal Conductivity

25.0 W/(m K) @ 20 K

0.3 W/(m K) @ 300 K

Thermal Expansion

|| C: 13.7×10–6 /

^C: 8.48×10–6 / K

Hardness (Knoop)

415.6

 

Young’s Modulus

158.55 GPa

 

Shear Modulus

54.66 GPa

 

Bulk Modulus

101.32 GPa

 

Rupture Modulu

49.0 MPa

 

Elastic Coefficient

C11 = 140.2 
C12 = 89.5

C33 = 204.7 GPa

Dielectric Constant

|| C: 4.87

^C: 5.45

Solubility in Water

< 0.0002 g / 100 g @ 0...60 °C

 

Cleavage Planes:

(110)

Standard Diameter

140 mm

Application

Scintillation material
correction part in lens systems

Remarks

radiation resistant, susceptible to thermal shock 
laser damage threshold: 27.5 GW/cm2, @ 3.8 mm, 
75 ns pulse length

List of Optical Crystals

Materials

Refractive Index

Transmission
Range (mm)

Density
(g/cm³)

Thermal Expansion  
Coefficient (10
-6/K) 

 

BK7 glass

1.5164 (588 nm)

0.330 – 2.1

2.51

7.5 

 

SF11 glass

1.78472 (588 nm)

0.370 – 2.5

4.74

6.8 

 

F2 glass

1.62004 (588 nm)

0.420 – 2.0

3.61

8.2 

 

Fused Silica

1.4858 (308 nm)

0.185 – 2.5

2.20

0.55 

 

CaF2

1.399 (5.0 mm)

 0.170 – 7.8

3.18

 18.85 

 

BaF2

1.460 (3.0 um)

 0.15 – 12.0

4.88

 18.4 

 

Sapphire

1.755 (1.0mm)

0.180 – 4.5

3.98

8.4 

 

Silicon

3.4179 (10mm)

 1.200 – 7.0

2.33

 4.15 

 

Ge

4.003 (10 mm)

 1.900 – 16

5.33

 6.1 

 

ZnSe

2.40  (10 mm)

0.630 – 18

5.27

7.8 

 

ZnS

2.2 (10mm)

0.380 –14

4.09

6.5 

 

LiF

1.39 (500 nm)

 0.150 – 5.2

2.64

37 

 

KBr

1.526 (10 mm)

 0.280 – 22

2.75

43 

 

 MgF2

no=1.3836
ne=1.3957
(405 nm)

0.130 – 7.0

7.37

a: 13.7         b: 8.48 

 

YVO4

no= 1.9500
ne=2.1554
(1.3 mm)

0.400 – 5.0

4.22

a: 4.46       b: 11.37 

 

Calcite

no=1.6557
ne= 1.4852
(633 nm)

0.210 – 2.3

2.75

a: 24.39        b: 5.68 

 

Quartz

no=1.5427
ne=1.5518
(633 nm)

0.200 – 2.3

2.65

7.07 

 

α-BBO

no=1.6749
ne= 1.5555
(532 nm)

0.190 – 3.5

3.85

a: 4.0           c: 36 

 

LiNbO3

no=2.2863
ne= 2.2027
(633 nm)

0.370 – 4.5

4.64

a: 16.7          c: 2.0 

 

Magnesium oxide
MgO

Magnesium oxide
MgO
Magnesium Oxide

Crystal properties

Crystal growth method

Arc furnace

 

 

Crystal growth orientation

(100)

   

Maximum size

Up to 2 inch

   

Variations

Doped crystals (Fe, Ti, Ni,
Cr, V, Cu, Mn, Zn,Co)
Other dopands on request

   

Crystallographic properties

Crystallographic structure

Cubic 
a = 4.212 Å

Twinning structure

Twinfree

Colour

Colourless

Physical properties

 

Density

3.585 g/cm3

Melting point

2780 +/- 20 °C

Thermal expansion coefficient

8 * 10-6 K-1

Hardness in Microvickers 500 g

orientation

(100) (110) (111)
910 990 980

Physical properties cont.

Dielectric constant

< 9.5

Dielectric loss tangent

3.3 * 10-7

 

Specific resistivity

> 1017Ohm/cm

 

Optical properties

Transmission range

0.2 to 8 µm

 

Refraction index

nc = 1.77197 - 1.72267

 

X-ray properties

Orientation

Magnesium Oxide

(100), (110), (111)

Other orientations on request

Magnetite single crystal
Fe3O4

Magnetite single crystal
Fe3O4
Magnetite single crystalMagnetite single crystalMagnetite single crystal

Crystal properties

Crystal growth method

Natural

Crystal orientation

(001) (100) (110) (111) others on request

Maximum size

up to 10 x 10 mm

Crystallographic properties

a = 8,40 A

Crystallographic structure

cubic

Twinning structure

natural defects

Colour

black

Density

5,20 g/cm³

Hardness

5,5

Manganese (II) Oxide
MnO

Manganese (II) Oxide
MnO

Properties

 

Molar mass

70.9374 g/mol

Appearance

dark green crystals

Density

5.43 g/cm3

Melting point

1945 C

Solubility in water

insoluble

Solubility

soluble in acid

Refractive index (nD)

2.16

Structure

 

Crystal structure

Halite (cubic), cF8

Space group

Fm3m, No. 225

Coordination

Octahedral (Mn2+);
Octahedral (O2-)

Lattice constant

4.43 Å

Std enthalpy of formation  fH 298

-385 kJ . K -1[1]

Standard molar entropy S 298

60 J . mol-1 . K-1[1]

Neodymium doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet
Nd:YAG

Neodymium doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet
Nd:YAG

Basic Properties

Chemical Formula

Y3A15O12

Crystal structure

Cubic

Lattice constant

12.01 Å

Melting Point

1970 °C

Density

4.5 g/ cm³

Reflective Index

1.82

Thermal Expansion Coefficient

7.8 x 10-6 /K<111>

Thermal Conductivity (W/m/K)

14 W/m/K, 20 °C
10.5 W/m/K, 100°C

Mohs hardness

8.5

Stimulated Emission Cross Section:

2.8 x 10-19 cm-2

Radiative Lifetime

550 ms

Spontaneous Fluorescence

230 ms

Linewidth

0.6 nm

Loss Coefficient

0.003 cm-1 @ 1064 nm

Spectral Properties with concentration

Nd: Dopant

2.5 at%

2 at%

1.5 at%

1.3 at%

1.1 at%

1 at%

Fluorescence lifetime

160 ms

180 ms

200 ms

210 ms

220 ms

240 ms

Absorption Coefficient.

7.55 cm-1

6.57 cm-1

5.36 cm-1

4.66 cm-1

3.88 cm-1

3.55 cm-1

Nd:YAG Specifications

Diameter

f3 – 12 mm

Lenght

1 – 152 mm

Crystallographic orientatio

<111> ±30 arc minute

Nd Dopand Level

1.0 ± 0.1 atm%

Extinction Ratio

>28 dB

Optical quality

<0.5 fringes / inch

Diameter tolerance

±0.05 mm

Length tolerance

±0.7 mm

End face perpendicularity

< 5 arc minutes

Parallelism

<10 arc seconds

Wavefront distortion

l/8

Flatness

l/10

Sccratch/Dig

10/5 @MIL-O-13830A

HR-Coating

R>99.8% @ 1064 nm and R<5% @ 808 nm

AR-Coating (Single layer MgF2)

R<0.25% per surface (@ 1064 nm)

Neodymium doped Yttrium Orthovanadate
Nd:YVO4

Neodymium doped Yttrium Orthovanadate
Nd:YVO43
Neodymium doped Yttrium Orthovanadate

Crystal properties

Atomic Density

1.26 x 1020 atoms/cm³ 
(Nd 1.0%)

 

Crystal Structure

Zircon Tetragonal, 
space group D4h-I4/amd

a = b = 7.1193Å
c = 6.2892Å
 

Density

4.22 g/cm³

Mohs Hardnes:

4-5 (Glass-Like)

Thermal Expansion Coefficient (300 K).

aa = 4.43 x 10-6/K
aa = 11.37 x 10-6/K

Thermal Conductivity Coefficient (300 K)

//C: 0.0523 W/cn/K
^C: 0.0510 W/cm/K

Optical Properties

Lasing wavelength

1064 nm
1342 nm

Thermal optical coefficient (300K).

dn0/dT = 8.5 x 10-6 /K
dne/dT = 2.9 x 10-6 /K

Stimulated emmission cross-section.

25 x 10-19 cm² @ 1064 nm

Fluorescent lifetime

90 ms

Absorption coefficient.

31.4 cm-1 @ 810 nm

Intrinsic loss.

0.02 cm-1 @ 1064 nm

Gain bandwidth

0.96 nm @ 1064 nm

Polarized laser emission

p polarization; parallel to optic axis (c-axis)

Diode pumped optical to optical efficiency

> 60 %

 

Sellmeier equations for pure YVO4 crystal as follows

no2 = 3.77834 + 0.069736 / (l2- 0 04724) - 0.010813l2

ne2 = 4.59905 + 0.110534 / (l2- 0.04813) - 0.012676l2

Neodymium Gallate
NdGaO3

Neodymium Gallate
NdGaO3
Neodymium GallateNeodymium Gallate
Neodymium Gallete crystal slices + wafer
 

Crystal properties

Crystal growth method

Czochralski-method

 

Crystal growth orientation

(110) Orthorhombic

Maximum siz:

Up to Æ 2 inch * 3 inch

Crystallographic properties

Structural type

Distorted Perovskite

Crystallographic structure

Orthorhombic

a = 5.426 Å
b = 5.496 Å
c = 7.707 Å

Twinning structure

Twinfree

Colour

Dark red to violet

Physical properties

Density.

7.56 g/cm3

Melting point

1605 °C

Thermal expansion coefficient

0.9 * 10-5 K-1

Hardness

5.9 (Mohs)

Physical properties cont.

Dielectric constant

< 20 at 300 °K

Dielectric loss tangent

< 2-3* 10-3 at 300 °K

Optical properties

no data available

 

X-ray properties

Orientation

(110), (100), (001)
Other orientations on request
Edge orientation is also available

Nickelum oxide
 

Nickelum oxide
 
Nickelum Oxide

Potassium bromide
KBr

Potassium bromide
KBr
Potassium Bromide

Crystal properties

Crystal Type

cubic, NaCl  type structure 

 

Transmission Range

0.23 ... 25 µm 

Refractive Index

1.52695 @ 9.724 µm 

Reflective Loss

8.4 % @ 10.0 µm 

Reststrahlen

77.6 µm 

Density

2.7533 g/cm3 

Melting Point

730 °C 

Molecular Weight

119.002 

Thermal Conductivity

4.816 W/(m K) @ 46 °C 

Specific Heat

435 J/(kg K) @ 0 °C 

Thermal Expansion.

43 × 10–6 / K 

Hardness (Knoop)

5.9 <110> 
7.0 <100> 
Indenter load 200 g
 

Young’s Modulus

26.8 GPa 

Shear Modulus

5.08 GPa 

Bulk Modulus

15.03 GPa 

Rupture Modulus

0.33 MPa 

Elastic Coefficient 

C11 = 34.5 
 C12 = 5.4  
C44 = 5.08 GPa
 

Dielectric Constant

5.65 @ 25 °C, f = 100 Hz ... 10 GHz 

Solubility in Water

53.4 g / 100 g @ 0 °C 

Crystal Structure

Single crystal,  synthetic 

Cleavage Planes

(100) 

Standard Diameter

180 mm 

Application

IR spectroscopy
FTIR beamsplitters
CO2 laser optics
protective windows

Remarks

coatings available 

List of Optical Crystals

Materials

Refractive Index

Transmission
Range (mm)

Density
(g/cm³)

Thermal Expansion  
Coefficient (10
-6/K) 

 

BK7 glass

1.5164 (588 nm)

0.330 – 2.1

2.51

7.5 

 

SF11 glass

1.78472 (588 nm)

0.370 – 2.5

4.74

6.8 

 

F2 glass

1.62004 (588 nm)

0.420 – 2.0

3.61

8.2 

 

Fused Silica

1.4858 (308 nm)

0.185 – 2.5

2.20

0.55 

 

CaF2

1.399  (5.0 mm)

 0.170 – 7.8

3.18

 18.85 

 

BaF2

 1.460 (3.0 um)

 0.15 – 12.0

4.88

 18.4 

 

Sapphire

1.755 (1.0mm)

0.180 – 4.5

3.98

8.4 

 

Silicon

3.4179 (10mm)

 1.200 – 7.0

2.33

 4.15 

 

Ge

4.003 (10 mm)

 1.900 – 16

5.33

 6.1 

 

ZnSe

2.40  (10 mm)

0.630 – 18

5.27

7.8 

 

ZnS

2.2 (10mm)

0.380 –14

4.09

6.5 

 

LiF

1.39 (500 nm)

 0.150 – 5.2

2.64

37 

 

KBr

1.526 (10 mm)

 0.280 – 22

2.75

43 

 

 MgF2

no =  1.3836  ne = 1.3957 (405 nm)

0.130 – 7.0

7.37

a: 13.7         b: 8.48 

 

YVO4

no = 1.9500  ne = 2.1554 (1.3 mm)

0.400 – 5.0

4.22

a: 4.46       b: 11.37 

 

Calcite

no =  1.6557  ne = 1.4852 (633 nm)

0.210 – 2.3

2.75

a: 24.39        b: 5.68 

 

Quartz

no =  1.5427  ne = 1.5518 (633 nm)

0.200 – 2.3

2.65

7.07 

 

α-BBO

no =  1.6749  n= 1.5555 (532 nm)

0.190 – 3.5

3.85

a: 4.0           c: 36 

 

LiNbO3

 no =  2.2863  ne = 2.2027 (633 nm)

0.370 – 4.5

4.64

a: 16.7          c: 2.0 

 

Potassium chloride
KCl

Potassium chloride
KCl

Chart 1

Chart 2

Crystal properties

Crystal Type

cubic, NaCl type structure

Transmission Range

0.21 ... 30 µm

Refractive Index

1.488 @ 0.6 µm
1.454 @ 10.6 µm

Reflective Loss

6.8 % @ 10.0 µm

Reststrahlen

63.1 µm

Density.

1.989 g/cm3

Melting Point

776 °C

Molecular Weight

74.551

Thermal Conductivity

6.53 W/(m K)

Specific Heat

690 J/(kg K)

Thermal Expansion

36 × 10–6 / K

Hardness (Knoop)

7.2 <110>
9.3 <100>

Young’s Modulus

29.6 / 38.1 GPa

Shear Modulus

6.24 GPa

Bulk Modulus

17.36 GPa

Rupture Modulus

4.41 × 10–3 MPa

Elastic Coefficient

C11 = 40.2 
C12 = 6.7 
C44 = 6.29 GPa

Dielectric Constant

4.64 @ 25 °C, f = 1 MHz

Solubility in Water

34.7 g / 100 g @ 20 °C

Crystal Structure

Single crystal, synthetic

Cleavage Planes

(100)

Standard Diameter

180 mm
bigger diameter on request

Application

IR spectroscopy
windows for CO2 lasers
protection windows for cutting lenses

Remarks

coating available
high laser radiation resistance

 
 

Potassium Dideuterium Phosphate
Potassium Dihydrogen Phosphate
(KDP, DKDP or KD*P) KH2PO4  KD2PO4

Potassium Dihydrogen Phosphate
Potassium Dideuterium Phosphate
(KDP, DKDP or KD*P) KH2PO4 KD2PO4
KDP, DKDP or KD*P

Potassium Dihydrogen Phosphate (KDP) and Potassium Dideuterium Phosphate (DKDP) are nonlinear optical materials (NLO)know for their large NLO coefficients, wide transparency range and high optical damage threshold.

 

These materials are widely used as frequency multipliers for generation of the second, 
third and fuorth harmonics for Nd:YAG, Nd:YLF lasers. Both crystals are also applied in electro-optics: 
as Q-switches for Nd:YAG, Nd:YLF, Ti:sapphire and Alexandrite lasers and Pockels cells.

 

Owing to a posibility of growing large crystals, high laser frequency multipliers. Q-switches and Pockels cells, laser damage threshold of witch is over 40 J/cm2 (at lambda=1,06 µm, tau=3 ns). This allows to use them in the devices for laser fusion.

 

KDP and DKDP crystals possess elctro-optical, nonlinear and piesoelectric properties, high laser damage threshold and are used as the base for the devices and systems of laser engineering: frequency multipliers, modulators, gates, deflectors.

 

 

Basic Properties45

KDP

DKDP

Chemical Fomula

KH2PO4

KD2PO4

Class of symmetry

42m

42m

Crystal structure

tetragonal

tretagonal

Transparency Range, mm

0,2 – 1,5

0,2 – 1,6

Wafelength range, nm

200-1500

2

Electro – optical Coefficients, pm/V-1.

r41 = 8.8
r63 = 10.3

r41 = 8.8
3 = 25

Nonlinear Coefficients

d36 = 0.44 pm/V

d36 = 0.40 pm/V

Refractive index (at 1064 nm)

n0 = 1.4938 
nc = 1.4599

no = 1.4948
nc = 1.4554

Temperature Synchronism Width, oC*cm

11,5.

7,4.

Spectral Synchronism Width, A

*cm

106

Angle Synchronism Width, mrad*cm

0,84

0,94

Longitudinal half-wave voltage

Vn = 7.65 KV 
(l = 546 nm)

Vn = 2.98 KV 
(l= 546 nm)

Absorpion Coefficient, cm-1

0.07

0.006

Optical Damage Threshold
(l=1,064 mm, t=10ns)

>5 GW / cm²

>3 GW / cm²

ohs Hardness

2,5

2,5

Extinction ratio

 

30 dB

Sellmeier equations of DKDP

n02 = 1.9575544 + 0.2901391 l2 / (l2 – 0.0281399) – 0.02824391 l2 + 0.004977826 l2

nc2 = 1.5005779 + 0.6276034 l2 / (l2 – 0.0131558) – 0.01054063 l2 + 0.002243821 l4

Sellmeier equations of KDP

n02 = 2.259276 + 0.01008956 / (l2 – 0.012942625) + 13.00522 l2 / (l2 – 400)

nc2 = 2.132668 + 0.008637494 / (l2 – 0.012281043) + 3.2279924 l2 / (l2 – 400)

Refractive  Indix

Sellmeier Equation

n2 = A + B   /   (l2 – C) + Dl2   /    (l2 – E)    ( l in mm )

Sellmeier Coeficients

KDP

KD*P

ADP

CDA

CD*A 

A

no

2.2576

2.2409

2.3041

0.4204

2.4082

 

ne

2.1295

2.1260

2.1643

2.3503

2.3458

B

no

0.0101

0.0097

0.0111

0.0163

0.0156

 

ne

0.0097

0.0086

0.0097

0.0156

0.0151 

C

no

0.0142

0.0156

0.0133

0.0180

0.0191

 

ne

0.0014

0.0120

0.0129

0.0168

0.0168 

D

no

1.7623

2.2470

15.1086

1.4033

2.2122

 

ne

0.7580

0.7844

5.8057

0.6853

0.6518 

E

no

57.8984

126.9205

400.0000

57 8239

126.8709

 

ne

127.0535

123.4032

400.0000

127.2700

127.3309 

 

l = 1064

no

1.4942

1.4931

1.5071

1.5515

1.5499

Typical
Values

nm

ne

1.4603

1.4583

1.4685

1.5356

1.5341 

 

l = 532

no

1.5129

1.5074

1.5280

1.5732

1.5692

Typical
Values

nm

ne

1.4709

1.4683

1.4819

1.5516

1.5496 

 

l = 355

no

1.5317

1.5257

1.5487

1.6026

1.5974

 

nm

ne

1.4863

1.4833

1.4994

1.5788

1.5759 

Potassium Niobate
KNbO3

Potassium Niobate
KNbO3
Potassium Niobate

Crystal properties

Symmetry

Orthorhombic

Point group

2 mm (@ temperature fromm –50°C to 222 ± 4°C)

Lattice Parameters

A = 5.68961 Å
B = 3.9692 Å
C = 5.7256 Å
 

Thermal Expansion.

A= 5.010 x 10-6/°C
Ab = 1.410 x 10-5/°C
Ac = 5.010 x 10-7/°C

Density

4.62 g/cm³

Hardness (Mohs)

5

Phase Transition Temperature

-50 °C; 220°C; 430°C

Transsparent Range

400 – 4500 nm

Absorption loss

£ 1 %/cm @ 1064 nm

Damage threshold

³ 4 J/cm² @ 527 nm (500 ps, single pulse)
³ 6 J/cm² @1054 nm (700 ps, single pulse)

Principal Axes Û Crystallographic Axes

x Û c, y Û a, z Û b
( ie. Nb> na> n)

Typical Refractive Index

na (ny)

n(nz)

nc (nx)

430 nm

2.4145

2.4974

2.2771

532 nm

2.3223

2.3813

2.2022

860 nm

2.2372

2.2784

2.1338

1064

2.2195

2.2576

2.1194

Sellmeier Equations: ( l in mm)

nx2 = 4.4208 + 0.10044 /(l2 – 0.054084) – 0.019592 l2

ny2 = 4.8355 + 0.12839 /(l2 – 0.056342) – 0.025379 l2

nx2 = 4.9873 + 0.15149 /(l2 – 0.064143) – 0.028775 l2

Potassium Tantalate
KTaO4

Potassium Tantalate Single Crystals
 
Potassium TantalatePotassium Tantalate

Typical Properties

 

Molecular weight

268.04

Crystal Structure

Cubic, Perovskite, a=3.989

Melting point

Does not melt congruently.

Density

7.015 g / cc

Thermal conductivity

0.17 w/m.k at 300k

Refractive index

2.14

Crystal grouwthmethod

TSSG

Potassium Titanyl Phosphate
KTiOPO4, KTP

Potassium Titanyl Phosphate
KTiOPO4, KTP
Potassium Titanyl PhosphatePotassium Titanyl PhosphatePotassium Titanyl Phosphate

Structural and Physical Properties

Crystal Structure

Orthorhombic, space group Pna21, point group mm

Cell parameters

a = 6.404 Å
b = 10.616 Å
c = 12.814 Å
Z = 8

Melting Point

1172 °C incongruent

Curie Point

936 °C

Mohs hardness

≈ 5

Density

3.01 g / cm³

Color

Colorless

Hygroscopic susceptibility

No

Specific heat

0.1643 cal / g• °C

Thermal conductivity

0.13 W / cm / °K

Electrical conductivity

3.5 x 10-8 s/cm (c-axis, 22°C, 1 KHz)

Nonlinear Optical Properties

Phase matchable SHG range

497 – 1800 nm

Nonlinear optical coefficients

d31 = 6.5 pm / v
d32 = 5 pm / v
d33 = 13.7 pm / v
d24 = 7.6 pm / v
d15 = 6.1 pm / v
deff(І?І?) ≈(d24 – d15) sin2fsin2q - (d15sin²f + d24cos²f) sinq

For type II SHG of a Nd: YAG

Laser at 1064 nm

Pm angle: q = 90°C, f = 23.3°
Effective SHG coefficient: deff» 8.3 xd36 (KDP)
Angular acceptance: 20 mrad-cm
Temperature acceptance: 25 °C-cm

Spectral acceptance: 5.6 Å –cm
Walk-off angle: 4.5 mrad (0.26°)
Optical damage threshold: > 450 MW / cm², 
(@ 1064 nm, 10 ns, 10 Hz)

 

Electro – optic coefficients

Low frequency (pm/V)

High frequency (pm/V)

R13

9.5

8.8

R23

15.7

13.8

R33

36.3

35.0

R51

7.3

6.9

R42

9.3

8.8

Dielectric constant

Eeff= 13

Optical properties

Transmitting range:Density

350 – 4500 nm

 

Refractive indices
1064 nm
532 nm

nx
1.7377
1.7780

ny
1.7453
1.7886

nz
1.8297
1.8887

Sellmeier equations

nx2 = 3.0065 + 0.03901 / (l2 - 0.04251) – 0.01327 l2
ny2 = 3.0333 + 0.04154 / (l2 – 0.04547) – 0.01408 l2
nz2 = 3.0065 + 0.05694 / (l2 – 0.05658) – 0.01682 l2

Therm – optic coefficients

dnx / dT = 1.1 x 10-5 / °C
dny / dT = 1.3 x 10-5 / °C
dnz / dT = 1.6 x 10-5 / °C

Absorption coefficient

αa < 1% cm-1 @ 1064 nm and 532 nm

Pyrite
FeS2

Pyrite
FeS2

Crystal symmetry

Isometric diploidal Space group: Pa3
H-M symbol: 2/m3

Unit cell

a = 5.417 Å , Z = 4

Identification

 

Color

Pale brass-yellow, tarnishes darker and iridescent

Crystal system

Isometric

Cleavage

Indistinct on {001};
partings on {011} and {111}

Mohs scale hardness

6 - 6.5

Diaphaneity

Opaque

Specific gravity

4.95 - 5.10

Fusibility

2.5 - 3 to a magnetic globule

Other characteristics

paramagnetic

Pyrite is a semiconductor material with band gap of 0.95 eV.[15]

Siderite - Iron Carbonate
FeCO3

Siderite - Iron Carbonate
FeCO3

Identifikation

 

Color

Pale yellow to brown

Crystal habit

Tabular crystals

Crystal system

Trigonal - Hexagonal scalenohedral (3 2/m)

Lattice constant

arh   = 6.03 Å     a`103 °, 05`
ahex = 4.72 Å
chex = 15.46 Å

Twinning

Lamellar uncommon on {0112}

Cleavage

Perfect on {0111}

Mohs scale hardness

3.75 - 4.25

Diaphaneity

Translucent to subtranslucent

Specific gravity

3.96

Optical properteis

Uniaxial (-)

Refractive index

n = 1.875
nԑ= 1.633

Birefringence

δ = 0.242

Silicon Carbide
SiC

Silicon Carbide
SiC
Silicon Carbide

Crystal properties

Crystal Type

6H-SiC

 

Formular weight

40.10

Unit cell and constant

Hexagonal 
a = 3.073 Angstrom,
c = 15.117 Angstrom

Stacking sequence

ABCACB ( 6H )

on axis (0001)

+/- 4 minutes

Type

N - type

Nd – Na.

Nd - Na = 5 X 1015 to 1 x 1019 / cm3
Nd = Number density of electron donors
Na = Number density of electron acceptors (holes)
Nd - Na = Net Carrier Concentration

Resistivity

0.06 +/- 0.02 Ohm-cm

Micro-pipe Density.

~200 / cm2

Polish

One side (Si-face) polished, back side Carbon face

Band Gap

2.93 eV (Indirect)

Dielectric Constant

ƒÃ(11) = ƒÃ(22) = 9.66, ƒÃ(33) = 10.33

Thermal Conductivity at 300K

5 W / cm.K

Growth method

Seeded Crystal – 
Vapor Phase Transport 
Modified Lally Process

Size

Up to 4 inch

Crystal Type

4H-SiC

Unit cell and constant

Hexagonal 
a = 3.076 Angstrom
c = 10.053 Angstrom

Stacking sequence

ABAC ( 4H )

on axis (0001)

+/- 0.5°

Type

N - type

Polish

One side (Si-face) polished

Size

Up to 4”

Silicon Dioxide
SiO2

Silicon Dioxide
SiO2
Silicon Dioxide

Transmission Range

0.18 ... 3.6 µm

Refractive Index

no= 1.6775, ne= 1.6899 @ 185 nm 
no= 1.5709, ne= 1.5809 @ 325 nm 
no= 1.5482, ne= 1.5575 @ 508 nm 
no= 1.5423, ne= 1.5513 @ 644 nm 
no= 1.5201, ne= 1.5282 @ 2.05 µm 
no= 1.4995, ne= 1.5070 @ 3.00 µm

dn / dT

–6.5 ×10–7 / K || Y, –5.5 ×10–7 / K _|_ Y

Density

2.648 g/cm3

Melting Point

1700 °C

Molecular Weight

60.08

Thermal Conductivity

1.4 W/(m K)

Specific Heat

787 J/(kg K) @ 25 °C

Thermal Expansion

5 ×10–7

Hardness (Knoop)

461 @ 200 g, 741 @ 500 g indenter load

Young's Modulus

76.5 GPa _|_ Y , 97.2 GPa || Y

Shear Modulus

36.4 GPa / 57,13 GPa

Bulk Modulus

98.98 GPa

Elastic Coefficient

C11 = 86.75 / C12 = 6.87 / C13 = 11.3 /
C33 = 106.8 / C44 = 57.86 GPa

Dielectric Constant

3.9 / 4.34

Solubility in Water

insoluble

Crystal Structure

single crystal

Cleavage Planes

none

AT cut = + 35from Z towards Y

BT cut = - 49from Z towards Y

CT cut = + 38from Z towards Y

DT cut = - 52o from Z towards Y

ET cut = - 66from Z towards Y

FT cut = - 57from Z towards Y

Silicon
Si

Silicon
Si
SiliconSiliconSilicon

Crystal properties

Crystal Type

cubic, diamond structure

 

Transmission Range

1.2 ... 15 µm

Refractive Index

3.4179 @ 10 µm

Reflective Loss

46.1 % @ 10 µm

Density.

2.3291 g/cm3

Melting Point:

1420 °C

Molecular Weight:

28.086

Thermal Conductivity

163.32 W / (m K)

Specific Heat

703.4 J / (kg K) @ 25 °C

Thermal Expansion.

4.05 × 10–6 / K @ 10...50 °C

Hardness (Knoop)

1150 (Mohs 7)

Young’s Modulus

131 GPa

Shear Modulus

79.9 GPa

Bulk Modulus

102 GPa

Rupture Modulus

340 MPa

Elastic Coefficien

C11 = 167 / C12 = 65 / C44 = 80 Gpa

Dielectric Constant

13 @ f = 9.37 GHz

Solubility in Water

Insoluble

Crystal Structure

single crystal

Cleavage Planes

None

Application

material for IR optic and Electronics

List of Optical Crystals

Materials

Refractive Index

Transmission
Range (mm)

Density
(g/cm³)

Thermal Expansion  
Coefficient (10
-6/K) 

BK7 glass

1.5164 (588 nm)

0.330 – 2.1

2.51

  7.5 

SF11 glass

1.78472 (588 nm)

0.370 – 2.5

4.74

  6.8 

F2 glass

1.62004 (588 nm)

0.420 – 2.0

3.61

  8.2 

Fused Silica

1.4858 (308 nm)

0.185 – 2.5

2.20

  0.55 

CaF2

1.399  (5.0 mm)

 0.170 – 7.8

3.18

18.85 

BaF2

 1.460 (3.0 um)

 0.15 – 12.0

4.88

18.4 

Sapphire

1.755 (1.0mm)

0.180 – 4.5

3.98

  8.4 

Silicon

3.4179 (10mm)

 1.200 – 7.0

2.33

  4.15 

Ge

4.003 (10 mm)

 1.900 – 16

5.33

  6.1 

ZnSe

2.40  (10 mm)

0.630 – 18

5.27

  7.8 

ZnS

2.2 (10mm)

0.380 –14

4.09

  6.5 

LiF

1.39 (500 nm)

 0.150 – 5.2

2.64

37 

KBr

1.526 (10 mm)

 0.280 – 22

2.75

43 

 MgF2

no =  1.3836  ne = 1.3957 (405 nm)

0.130 – 7.0

7.37

a: 13.7
b: 8.48 

YVO4

no = 1.9500  ne = 2.1554 (1.3 mm)

0.400 – 5.0

4.22

a: 4.46
b: 11.37 

Calcite

no =  1.6557  ne = 1.4852 (633 nm)

0.210 – 2.3

2.75

a: 24.39
b: 5.68 

Quartz

no =  1.5427  ne = 1.5518 (633 nm)

0.200 – 2.3

2.65

7.07 

α-BBO

no =  1.6749  n= 1.5555 (532 nm)

0.190 – 3.5

3.85

a: 4.0
c: 36 

LiNbO3

 no =  2.2863  ne = 2.2027 (633 nm)

0.370 – 4.5

4.64

a: 16.7
c: 2.0 

Silver Gallium Sulfide / Silver Gallium Selenite
AgGaS2 / AgGaSe2

Silver Gallium Sulfide
Silver Gallium Selenite

Basic Properties

AgGaS2

AgGaSe2

Crystal structure

Tetragonal

Tetragonal

Cell parameters (Å)

a = 5.756
c = 10.301

a = 5.992
c = 10.886

Melting Point (°C)

997

851

Density (g/cm³)

4.702

5.700

Absorption Coefficient )cm-1)
@ 1.064mm
@ 10.6mm


0.01
0.6.


< 0.05
< 0.02

Resistance

> 1012

Unavailable

Relative Dielectric Constant
e11s/eo @ 25 MHz
e33s/eo @ 25 MHz


10
14


10.5
12.0

Thermal Expansion Coefficient
(10-6/°C) || C
^ C


+12.5
-13.2


+16.8
-7.8

Thermal conductivity (W/cm/°C)

0.015

Unavaible

Linear Optical Properties

Transparency Range (nm)

0.50 – 13.2

0.78 – 18.0

Refractive Indices

@ 1.064 mm
@ 5.300 mm
@ 10.60 mm

no

2.4521
2.3945
2.3472

ne

2.3990
2.3408
2.2934

no

2.7010
2.6134
2.5912

ne

2.6792
2.5808
2.5579

Wavelength @ n= ne (mm)

0.4974

0.811

Thermo-Optic Coefficients

dno/dt (10-5/°C)
dne/dt (10-5/°C)

15.4.
15.5

~15.
~15

Sellmeier Equations

AgGaS2.

Nno2 (l) = 3.3970 + 2.3982 / (1-0.09311/l2) + 2.1640 / (1-950/l2)
Nne2 (l) = 3.5873 + 1.9533 / (1-0.11066/l2) + 2.3391 / (1-1030.7/l2)

AgGaSe2.

Nno2 (l) = 4.6453 + 2.2057 / (1-0.1879/l2) + 1.8577 / (1-1600/l2)
Nne2 (l) = 5.2912 + 1.3970 / (1-0.2845/l2) + 1.9282 / (1-1600/l2)

Nonlinear Optical Properties

Phase-Matching SHG range (mm)

1.8 – 11.2

3.1 – 12.8

NLO Susceptibilities d36(pm/V)

SHG @ 10.64 mm

18.

58.

Linear Electro-optic Coefficients

y41T
y63T

4.0 ± 0.2
3.0 ± 0.1.

4.5 @ 1.15 mm
3.9 @ 1.15 mm.

Damage Threshold (MW/cm²)

@ ~ 10ns, 1.064 mm
@ ~ 10ns, 11.6 mm

25, surface
> 500 bulk

20 – 30, surface

Sodium Chloride
NaCl

Sodium Chloride
NaCl
Sodium Chloride

Crystal properties

Crystal Type

cubic

 

Transmission Range

0.21 ... 26 µm

Refractive Index

1.49980 @ 9,5 µm

Reflective Loss

7.5 % @ 10.0 µm

Reststrahlen

50.1 µm

Density.

2.165 g/cm3

Melting Point

801 °C

Molecular Weight

58.443

Thermal Conductivity

6.49 W/(m K)

Specific Heat

854 J/(kg K)

Thermal Expansion.

44×10–6 / K @ –50...200 °C

Hardness (Knoop)

15.2 <110>
18.2 <100> 
(indenter load: 200 g)

Young’s Modulus

39.98 GPa

Shear Modulus

12.61 GPa

Bulk Modulus

24.42 GPa

Rupture Modulus

2.38 Mpa

Elastic Coefficient

C11 = 48.7 / C12 = 12.6 / C44 = 12.75 GPa

Dielectric Constant

5.9 @ 25 °C, f = 100 Hz...25 GHz

Solubility in Water

35.7 g / 100 g @ 0 °C

Cleavage Planes

(100)

Standard Diameter

180 mm
larger diameters on request

Application

material for IR optic, CO2 laser windows

Remarks

soluble in glycerol, slightly soluble in alcohol and aquos ammonia, insoluble in HCl

Sodium Fluoride
NaF

Sodium Fluoride
NaF
Sodium Fluoride

Crystal properties

Crystal Type

cubic

 

Transmission Range

< 0.15 ... 15 µm

Refractive Index

1.233 @ 10.3 µm

Reflective Loss

3.6 % @ 4.0 µm

Reststrahlen

35.8 µm

Density.

2.726 g/cm3

Melting Point

980 °C / 997 °C

Molecular Weight

41.988

Thermal Conductivity

3.746 W / (m K)

Specific Heat

1088 J / (kg K) @ 0 °C

Thermal Expansion

36 × 10–6 / K @ 25 °C

Hardness (Knoop)

60

Young’s Modulus

64.79 GPa

Shear Modulus

55.14 GPa

Bulk Modulus

62.03 GPa

Elastic Coefficient

C11 = 90.9 / C12 = 26.4 / C44 = 12.7 GPa

Dielectric Constant

6.0 @ f = 2 MHz

Solubility in Water

4.22 g / 100 g @ 18 °C

Cleavage Planes

(100)

Standard Diameter

200 mm 
larger diameters on request

Application

Cherenkov-counter 
AR coating material

Remarks:

very low refractive index

Strontium Lanthanium Aluminate
SrLaAlO4

Strontium Lanthanium Aluminate
SrLaAlO4
Strontium Lanthanium AluminateStrontium Lanthanium AluminateStrontium Lanthanium Aluminate

Crystal properties

Crystal growth method

Czochralski

Crystal growth orientation

(100) or (110)

Maximum size

1”

Crystallographic properties

Crystallographic structure

K2NiF4 - Structure
a = b = 3.754 Å
c = 12.63 Å

Twinning structure

TwinYellowfree

Colour

 

Physical properties

Density

5.924 g/cm3

Melting point

1650 °C

Mohs hardness

7

Physical properties cont

Thermal expansion coefficient

7.55 ± 0.02
10-6 K-1

Dielectric constant

17

Dielectric loss tangent (10GRz)

8 . 10-4

Electrical character

Dielectric

X-ray properties

Orientation

(100), (110)

Other orientations on request

Strontium Lanthanium Gallate
SrLaGaO4

Strontium Lanthanium Gallate
SrLaGaO4
Strontium Lanthanium Gallate

Crystal properties

Crystal growth method

Czochralski

 

Crystal growth orientatio

(100) or (110)

Maximum size

15 mm * 19 mm * 40 mm

Crystallographic properties

Crystallographic structure

K2NiF4 - Structure
a = b = 3.843 Å
c = 12.68 Å

Twinning structure

Twinfree

Colour

Yellow - Green

Physical properties

Density

6.389 g/cm3

Melting point

1520 °C

Hardness

NDA

Thermal expansion coefficient

10.05 * 10-6 K-1

Dielectric constant

22

Dielectric loss tangent (10GRz)

5.7 * 10-5

Electrical character

Dielectric

X-ray properties

Orientation

(100), (110), (001)

Other orientations on request

Strontium Titanate
SrTiO3

Strontium Titanate
SrTiO3
Strontium Titanate Strontium Titanate Strontium Titanate Strontium Titanate Strontium Titanate Strontium Titanate
Strontium Titanat SrTiO3 crystals Strontium Titanat SrTiO3 crystals Strontium Titanat lattice Strontium Titanat Sr0.94Ca0.06TiO3

Strontium Titanat SrTiO3-Mo-Fe

Strontium Titanat SrTiO3-Ta
Strontium Titanat - Crystal properties

Crystal growth method

Flame fusion method

 

Crystal growth orientation

(100)

 

Maximum size

Up to 2 inch * 4 inch length (conical)

Variations

Bicrystals, (100) 24 / 36 °
This crystals are fused
Other orientations on request

Doped crystals (Fe, Nb, FeNb, W, Ta, V)
Other dopands on request

Strontium Titanat - Crystallographic properties

Crystallographic structure

Cubic a = 3.905 Å

 

Twinning structure

Twinfree

 

Colour

Colourless to light yellow

 

Strontium Titanat - Physical properties

Density

5.12 g/cm3

 

Melting poin

2080 °C

 

Hardness

6 - 6.5 (Mohs)

 

Thermal expansion coefficient

9 * 10-6 K-1

 

Thermal conductivity

120 milliwatts/cm °C at 100 °C

Dielectric constant

300

 

Dielectric loss tangent (10GRz)

2 * 10-2

 

Electrical character

Paraelectric above 45°K
Ferroelectric below 45°K

 

Specific resistivity

> 107 Ohm/cm

 

Strontium Titanat - Optical properties

Transmission range

0.395 to 6 µm

 

Refraction index

nc = 2.380
nd = 2.409
n= 2.488

 

Dispersion

(n- nc) = 0.108

 

X-ray properties

Orientation

(100), (110), (111), (305)

Other orientations on request
Off orientation 2, 3, 5,10 and 15°
Edge orientation is available
Others on request
(100) +/- 0.1° with/without TiO2 termination

Tellurium oxide
TeO2

Tellurium oxide
TeO2
Tellurium Oxide

Growth Direction

<  110 >

   

Dimension

Ø 35 x (40 – 80) mm³

 

Optical Homogeneity

< 10-5 /cm 

   

Range of Transmission

0.35 –  5 mm 

   

Density (g/cm³)

6.00 

   

Wavelength

0.633mm 

   

Mode and Propagation Direction

 L(001)

S(110) 

S(110)

Acoustic Velocity (105 cm/S)

4.20

0.62

0.62 

Refractive Index

2.260

2.412 

2.260 

Figure

M1 (10-7 cm ·s2/g)

138

109 

68.0 

of   Merit

M2 (10-13 s3/g)

34.55

25.6 

793

(FOM) 

M3 (10-13 cm ·s2/g)

32.8

25.9 

110

Terbium Gallium Garnet
TGG

Terbium Gallium Garnet
TGG

Crystal properties

Growth Method

Czocralski 

Chemical Formula

Tb3Ga5O12 

Lattice Parameter

A = 12.355Å 

Density

7.13 g/cm3 

Mohs Hardness

8.0 

Melting Point

1725 o

Refractive Index

1.954 

at 1064 nm

Thermal Conductivity 

9.4x10-6oC-1

Verdet Constant 

0.12min / Oe.cm  at 1064nm

Crystal rod  parameters

Orientation

[111] within 5 degrees

Wave front Distortion (Measured at 633 nm)

< 1/8 wave total

Extinction Ratio

> 30 dB

Dimensional  Tolerances

Diameter

+0.00 mm / -0.05 mm

Length

+0.2 mm / -0.2 mm

Chamfer

 0.13mm (+0.00 mm, -0.08 mm)   at 45º +/- 5º

End Configuration

Flatness

< 1 / 10 wave at 633 nm

Parallelism

< 1 minutes of arc

Perpendicularity

< 1 degree

Scratch-dig

10-5 per MIL-O13830A

Titanium dioxide
TiO2

Titanium dioxide
TiO2
Titanium dioxideTitanium dioxideTitanium dioxide

Crystal properties

Crystal growth method

Flame fusion method 

Crystal growth orientation

(001), (110) 

Maximum size

Up to Æ 1.5 inch * 2 inch length

Variations

Doped crystals (Fe, Nb, W, Ta, V) 
Other dopands on request

Crystallographic properties

Crystallographic structure

Tetragonal 
a = b = 4.593 Å
c = 2.959 Å

Twinning structure

Type a) Optical grade, grain  boundaryfree
Type h) Electronic grade, with  domain structure

Colour

Slight Yellow, transparent

Physical properties

Density 

4.26 g/m3

Melting point

1825 °C

Hardness    

6.5 - 7  (Mohs)

Thermal expansion coefficient

9.943 * 10-6 K-1
7.192 * 10-6 K-1
 

|| c-axis
^c-axis

Physical  properties cont.

Dielectric constant

190
85

|| c-axis
^ c-axis

Dielectric loss tangent

17 * 10-3

 

Specific resistivity

> 1013 W/cm

 

Optical properties

Transmission range 

0.42 to 6.0 µm

 

Refraction index

nd = 2.613

ordinary ray 

nd = 2.909

extraordinary ray

(nf - nc) = 0.164

ordinary ray

(nf - nc) = 0.207

extraordinary ray

Birefringence

(nc - no) = 0.296

 

X-ray properties

Orientation

(100), (110), (001)

Titanium doped Sapphire Crystal
Ti:Sapphire

Titanium doped Sapphire Crystal
Ti:Sapphire

Basic Properties

Chemical Formula.

Ti+3:A12O3

Crystal Structure

Hexagonal

Lattice constants

A = 4.758
C = 12.991

Melting Point

2040 °C

Mohs hardness

9

Thermal conductivity

52 W/m/K

Specific heat

0.42 W·s/g/k

Laser action

4-Level Vibronic

Fluorescence lifetime

3.2 ms /T = 300K)

Tuning range

660 – 1050 nm

Absorbtion range

400 – 600 nm

Emission peak

795 nm

Absorption peak

488 nm

Refractive index

1.76 @ 800 nm

 

Standard Product Specifications

Orientation

Optical axis C normal to rod axis

Ti2O3 concentration

0.06 – 0.5 wt %

Figure Of Merit

>200 (>300 available on special requests)

End configurations

Flat / Flat or Brewster / Brewster ends

Flatness

l/10 @ 633 nm

Parallelism

10 arc sec

Surface finishing

<10/5 scratch / dig to MIL-O-13830A

Wavefront distortion

<l/4 per inch

 

List of Optical Crystals

Materials

Refractive Index

Transmission
Range (mm)

Density
(g/cm³)

Thermal Expansion
Coefficient (10
-6/K)

 

BK7 glass

1.5164 (588 nm)

0.330 – 2.1

2.51

7.5

 

SF11 glass

1.78472 (588 nm)

0.370 – 2.5

4.74

6.8

 

F2 glass

1.62004 (588 nm)

0.420 – 2.0

3.61

8.2

 

Fused Silica

1.4858 (308 nm)

0.185 – 2.5

2.20

0.55

 

CaF2

1.399  (5.0 mm)

 0.170 – 7.8

3.18

 18.85

 

BaF2

 1.460 (3.0 um)

 0.15 – 12.0

4.88

 18.4

 

Sapphire

1.755 (1.0mm)

0.180 – 4.5

3.98

8.4

 

Silicon

3.4179 (10mm)

 1.200 – 7.0

2.33

 4.15

 

Ge

4.003 (10 mm)

 1.900 – 16

5.33

 6.1

 

ZnSe

2.40  (10 mm)

0.630 – 18

5.27

7.8

 

ZnS

2.2 (10mm)

0.380 –14

4.09

6.5

 

LiF

1.39 (500 nm)

 0.150 – 5.2

2.64

37

 

KBr

1.526 (10 mm)

 0.280 – 22

2.75

43

 

 MgF2

no =  1.3836  ne = 1.3957 (405 nm)

0.130 – 7.0

7.37

a: 13.7
b: 8.48

 

YVO4

no = 1.9500  ne = 2.1554 (1.3 mm)

0.400 – 5.0

4.22

a: 4.46
b: 11.37

 

Calcite

no =  1.6557  ne = 1.4852 (633 nm)

0.210 – 2.3

2.75

a: 24.39
b: 5.68

 

Quartz

no =  1.5427  ne = 1.5518 (633 nm)

0.200 – 2.3

2.65

7.07

 

α-BBO

no =  1.6749  n= 1.5555 (532 nm)

0.190 – 3.5

3.85

a: 4.0
c: 36

 

LiNbO3

 no =  2.2863  ne = 2.2027 (633 nm)

0.370 – 4.5

4.64

a: 16.7
c: 2.0

 

Vivianite
Fe3(PO4)2*8H2O

Vivianite
Fe3(PO4)2*8H2O

Crystal symmetry

Monoclinic 2/m

Unit cell

a = 10.086 Å
b = 13.441 Å
c =  4.703 Å
β = 104.27°,  Z = 2

Identification

 

Color

pale green

Cleavage

Perfect on {010}

Mohs scale hardness

1.5 - 2

Diaphaneity

Transparent to translucent

Specific gravity

2.68 g/m3

Optical properties

Biaxial (+)

Refractive index

nα = 1.579 - 1.616
nβ = 1.602 - 1.656
nγ = 1.629 - 1.675

Birefringence

 δ = 0.050 - 0.059

Pleochroism

Visible;
X = blue, deep blue, indigo-blue
Y = pale yellowish green, pale bluish green, yellow-green
Z = pale yellowish green, olive-yellow

2V angle

Measured: 63° to 83.5°
Calculated: 78° to 88°

Dispersion

r<v, weak

Ytterbium,  doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet
Yd:YAG

Ytterbium, doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet
Yd:YAG
Ytterbium

Basic Properties

Chemical Formula

Yb: Y3A15O12 

Crystal Structure

Cubic 

Lattice constants

12.01 Å 

4Melting Point

1970 °C 

Density

4.56 g/cm² 

Mohs Hardness

8.5 

Dopant

5-30 % Yb 

Thermal Expansion Coefficient.

7.8 x 10-6 /K, (111), 0 –  250 °C 

Thermal Conductivity (20°C)

14 W.s/m/k 

Loss Coefficient.

0.003 cm-1 

Index of Refraction

1.82 

Dn / dT

9 x 10 - 5 / °C 

Lasing Wavelength

1030 nm, 1050 nm 

Fluorescence lifetime

1.2 ms 

Emission cross section.

2.2 x 10-20 cm² 

Pump Wavelength

0.9 – 1.0 mm 

Absorption band about pump  wavelength

18 nm 

Yttrium Aluminium Perowskite
YAP (YAlO)

Yttrium Aluminium Perowskite
YAP (YAlO)
Yttrium Aluminium Perowskite

Crystal properties

Density (g/cm³)

5.35

 

Formula:

YAIO3

Structure

rhombic

Index of Refraction:

1.95

Melting Point: (°C)

1875

Hardness (Mohs):

8.6

Chemical Resistance

Inert

Therm. Exp. (10-6/K)

¾ - 11

Max. of Emission (nm):

370

Decay Constant (ns)

40

Absorbtion Length (cm)

2.22

Relative Efficiency (%)

150

 

 

Yttrium Orthosilicate single crystal
YOS,YSO: Y2SiO5

Yttrium Orthosilicate single crystal
YOS,YSO: Y2SiO5

Crystal properties

Growth method

Czocralski

Crystal structure

monoclinic system C2h-C/m

Lattice parameters

a = 12.5013 Å
b = 6.7282 Å
c = 10.4217 Å
Beta = 102.68º

Density

4.44 g / cm3

Melting Point

about 2000oC

Yttrium Vanadate
YVO4

Yttrium Vanadate
YVO4
Yttrium Vanadate

Crystal properties

 

Crystal Type.

Crystal Structure

single crystal, synthetic 

Lattice Parameters

a = 12.004 Å 

Orientation

111, 100 

Application

active laser crystals 
(dopants: Nd, Tm, Ho, Er, Cr) 
spectroscopy 
vacuum windows
 

Solubility in Water

none 

Dielectric Constant

11.7 

Elastic Coefficients

C11 = 3.33 GPa 
C12 = 1.11 GPa 
C44 = 1.15 Gpa
 

Young’s Modulus

300 Gpa 

Hardness (Knoop)

1215 (8.5 Mohs) 

Thermal Expansion.

7.8 ×10–6 / K (111)
7.7 ×10–6 / K (110)
8.2 ×10–6 / K (100)
 

Specific Heat

590 J / (kg K)
 

Thermal Conductivity

14.0 W / (m K)
13.0 W / (m K)
 

Molecular Weight

593.618 

Melting Point

1940 °C / 1970 o

Density

4.56 g/cm3 

dn / dT.

9.86 ± 0.04 ×10–6 / K
7.3 ×10–6 / K
 

Refractive Index

1.8245   @ 0.8   µm
1.81523 @ 1.06 µm
1.8121   @ 1.4   µm
 

Transmission Range

0,25 ... 5 µm 

Chemical Resistance

Inert

Max. of Emission (nm)

550

Decay Constant (ns)

70

Absorbtion Length (cm)

2.61

Relative Efficiency (%)

125

 

YAG LASER ROD

Chemical Composition

Y3Al5O12 (Yttrium Aluminium Garnet) 

Dopant

Neodymium, Erbium 

Dopant Concentration (atomic%)

0.4 ~ 1.1 

Crystallographic Orientation

(111) ± 5°

Diameters available (mm)

2 ~ 12 

Diameters tolerance (μm)

± 25 

Lengths available (mm)

30 ~ 250 

End Face Flatness

Within λ  / 10 

Parallelism of end faces

10 arc seconds or less 

End face perpendicularity

5 arc minutes or less 

Extinction Ratio

30 dB Min. 

Coating

 

Yttrium-Aluminum-Garnet
Y3Al5O12

Yttrium-Aluminum-Garnet  (Y3Al5O12)
YAG - Yttrium Aluminium Garnet Crystals
Yttrium-Aluminum-GarnetYttrium-Aluminum-GarnetYttrium-Aluminum-GarnetYttrium-Aluminum-Garnet

Crystal properties

 

Crystal Type.

Crystal Structure

single crystal, synthetic 

Lattice Parameters

a = 12.004 Å 

Orientation

111, 100 

Application

active laser crystals 
(dopants: Nd, Tm, Ho, Er, Cr) 
spectroscopy 
vacuum windows
 

Solubility in Water

none 

Dielectric Constant

11.7 

Elastic Coefficients

C>11> = 3.33 GPa 
C>12> = 1.11 GPa 
C>44> = 1.15 Gpa
 

Young’s Modulus

300 Gpa 

Hardness (Knoop)

1215 (8.5 Mohs) 

Thermal Expansion.

7.8 ×10>–6> / K (111)
7.7 ×10>–6> / K (110)
8.2 ×10>–6> / K (100)
 

Specific Heat

590 J / (kg K)
 

Thermal Conductivity

14.0 W / (m K)
13.0 W / (m K)
 

Molecular Weight

593.618 

Melting Point

1940 °C / 1970 >o>C 

Density

4.56 g/cm>3

dn / dT.

9.86 ± 0.04 ×10>–6> / K
7.3 ×10>–6> / K
 

Refractive Index

1.8245   @ 0.8   µm
1.81523 @ 1.06 µm
1.8121   @ 1.4   µm
 

Transmission Range

0,25 ... 5 µm 

Chemical Resistance

Inert

Max. of Emission (nm)

550

Decay Constant (ns)

70

Absorbtion Length (cm)

2.61

Relative Efficiency (%)

125

 

YAG LASER ROD

Chemical Composition

Y3Al5O12 (Yttrium Aluminium Garnet)

Dopant

Neodymium, Erbium 

Dopant Concentration (atomic%)

0.4 ~ 1.1 

Crystallographic Orientation

(111) ± 5°

Diameters available (mm)

2 ~ 12 

Diameters tolerance (μm)

± 25 

Lengths available (mm)

30 ~ 250 

End Face Flatness

Within λ  / 10 

Parallelism of end faces

10 arc seconds or less 

End face perpendicularity

5 arc minutes or less 

Extinction Ratio

30 dB Min. 

Coating

 

Zinc Oxide
ZnO

Zinc Oxide
ZnO

Zinc OxideZinc OxideZinc OxideZinc Oxide

Materials properties

Structure formula

ZnO

 

State

monocrystalline

 

Crystal structure

hexagonal
a = 3.252 Å
c = 5.213 Å

 

Melting point

1975°C

 

 

Substrate properties

Production method

hydrothermal

Orientation

(0001)

Orientation accuracy

max. 30'; typ. < 20'

Standard size

10mm x 10mm, 10mm x 5mm

max. diameter

< Ø 1"

Tolerance of length

+0 / - 0.05mm

Polishing

one side or both sides epi-polished

Zinc Selenide
ZnSe

Zinc Selenide
ZnSe
Zinc SelenideZinc Selenide

Crystal properties

Crystal growth method

Seeded Vapor-Phase Free Growth Technology

Orientation

(100) (110) (111) +/- 0.5°

Crystal structure

cubic, a = 5.6687Å

Growth direction

<111> or <100>

Specific resistivity

1 X 108 ... 1 X 1012 Ohm cm ( undoped )

Hall mobility

400 (e) cm/ V / sec.

EPD

5 X 103 / cm2 ... 1 X 105 / cm2

Twin

Twin free

Orientation

Size

Polish

ZnSe(100)

10 x 10 x 1mm3

Both sides

ZnSe(110)

10 x 10 x 1mm3

Both sides

ZnSe (111)

10 x 10 x 1mm3

Both sides

 

List of Optical Crystals

Materials

Refractive Index

Transmission
Range (mm)

Density
(g/cm³)

Thermal Expansion
Coefficient (10-6/K)

 

BK7 glass

1.5164 (588 nm)

0.330 – 2.1

2.51

7.5 

 

SF11 glass

1.78472 (588 nm)

0.370 – 2.5

4.74

6.8 

 

F2 glass

1.62004 (588 nm)

0.420 – 2.0

3.61

8.2 

 

Fused Silica

1.4858 (308 nm)

0.185 – 2.5

2.20

0.55 

 

CaF2

1.399 (5.0 mm)

 0.170 – 7.8

3.18

 18.85 

 

BaF2

 1.460 (3.0 um)

 0.15 – 12.0

4.88

 18.4 

 

Sapphire

1.755 (1.0mm)

0.180 – 4.5

3.98

8.4 

 

Silicon

3.4179 (10mm)

 1.200 – 7.0

2.33

 4.15 

 

Ge

4.003 (10 mm)

 1.900 – 16

5.33

 6.1 

 

ZnSe

2.40  (10 mm)

0.630 – 18

5.27

7.8 

 

ZnS

2.2 (10mm)

0.380 –14

4.09

6.5 

 

LiF

1.39 (500 nm)

 0.150 – 5.2

2.64

37 

 

KBr

1.526 (10 mm)

 0.280 – 22

2.75

43 

 

 MgF2

no=1.3836
ne=1.3957 (405 nm)

0.130 – 7.0

7.37

a: 13.7 
b: 8.48 

 

YVO4

no= 1.9500
ne=2.1554 (1.3 mm)

0.400 – 5.0

4.22

a: 4.46 
b: 11.37 

 

Calcite

no=1.6557
ne=1.4852 (633 nm)

0.210 – 2.3

2.75

a: 24.39 
b: 5.68 

 

Quartz

no=1.5427
ne=1.5518 (633 nm)

0.200 – 2.3

2.65

7.07 

 

α-BBO

no=1.6749
ne= 1.5555 (532 nm)

0.190 – 3.5

3.85

a: 4.0 
c: 36 

 

LiNbO3

no=2.2863
ne=2.2027 (633 nm)

0.370 – 4.5

4.64

a: 16.7 
c: 2.0 

 

Zinc Sulfide
ZnS

Zinc Sulfide
ZnS
Zinc SulfideZinc SulfideZinc Sulfide

Crystal properties

Crystal growth method

Seeded Vapor-Phase Free Growth Technology

Crystal growth orientation

(100) (110) (111) +/- 0.5°

Crystal structure

cubic, a = 5.4093 Å
ZnS single crystals consist of 96 - 98% of Zinc-blende and only 2-4% of

Wurtzite structure.

Crystal axis

<111>

Specific resistivity

1 X 108 ... 1 X 1012 Ohm cm

Hall mobility

140 (e) cm/ V / sec.

EPD

< 5 X 105 / cm2

Twin and stacking faults

< 4 % of hexagonal phase

Standard sizes

10 X 10 X 1mm3

Max ingot diameter

40 mm

Orientation

Size

Polish

ZnS(100)

10 x
10 x
1mm3

Both sides

ZnS(110)

10 x
10 x 1mm3

Both sides

ZnS (111)

10 x
10 x 1mm3

Both sides

 

List of Optical Crystals

Materials

Refractive Index

Transmission
Range (mm)

Density
(g/cm³)

Thermal Expansion  
Coefficient (10-6/K) 

 

BK7 glass

1.5164 (588 nm)

0.330 – 2.1

2.51

7.5 

 

SF11 glass

1.78472 (588 nm)

0.370 – 2.5

4.74

6.8 

 

F2 glass

1.62004 (588 nm)

0.420 – 2.0

3.61

8.2 

 

Fused Silica

1.4858 (308 nm)

0.185 – 2.5

2.20

0.55 

 

CaF2

1.399  (5.0 mm)

 0.170 – 7.8

3.18

 18.85 

 

BaF2

 1.460 (3.0 um)

 0.15 – 12.0

4.88

18.4 

 

Sapphire

1.755 (1.0mm)

0.180 – 4.5

3.98

8.4 

 

Silicon

3.4179 (10mm)

 1.200 – 7.0

2.33

4.15 

 

Ge

4.003 (10 mm)

 1.900 – 16

5.33

6.1 

 

ZnSe

2.40  (10 mm)

0.630 – 18

5.27

7.8 

 

ZnS

2.2 (10mm)

0.380 –14

4.09

6.5 

 

LiF

1.39 (500 nm)

 0.150 – 5.2

2.64

37 

 

KBr

1.526 (10 mm)

 0.280 – 22

2.75

43 

 

 MgF2

no=1.3836
ne=1.3957 (405 nm)

0.130 – 7.0

7.37

a: 13.7 b: 8.48 

 

YVO4

no=1.9500
ne=2.1554 (1.3 mm)

0.400 – 5.0

4.22

a: 4.46 b: 11.37 

 

Calcite

no=1.6557
ne=1.4852 (633 nm)

0.210 – 2.3

2.75

a: 24.39 b: 5.68 

 

Quartz

no=1.5427
ne=1.5518 (633 nm)

0.200 – 2.3

2.65

7.07 

 

α-BBO

no=1.6749
ne=1.5555 (532 nm)

0.190 – 3.5

3.85

a: 4.0 c: 36 

 

LiNbO3

no=2.2863
ne=2.2027 (633 nm)

0.370 – 4.5

4.64

a: 16.7 c: 2.0 

 

Zinc Telluride
ZnTe

Zinc Telluride
ZnTe

Crystal properties

Crystal growth method

Seeded Vapor-Phase Free Growth Technology

Crystal growth orientation

(100) (110) (111) +/- 0.5°

Crystal structure

cubic, a = 6.1034Å

Growth direction

<111>

Specific resistivity

< 1 X 106 Ohm cm

Hall mobility

130 (h) cm/ V / sec.

EPD

< 5 X 105 / cm2

Twin

Twin free

Orientation

Size

Polish

(100)

10*10*1mm3

Both sides

(110)

10*10*1mm3

Both sides

(111)

10*10*1mm3

Both sides

Zirconium Oxide (Y2O3)
Stabilized with 9.5 mol%

Zirconium Oxide (Y203)
Stabilized with 9.5 m/ol%
Zirconium Oxide

Crystal properties

Crystal growth method

Skull melting method

Crystal growth orientation

(100)

Maximum size

> 3 inch

Variations

Doped crystals (Fe, Nb, Cr, W, Ta, V)
Other dopands on request

Crystallographic properties

Crystallographic structure

Cubic a = b = c = 5.14Å

Twinning structure

Twinfree

Colour

Colourless

Physical properties

Density

5.9 g/cm3

Melting point

2780 °C

Hardness

8.7 (Mohs)

Physical properties cont.

Thermal expansion coefficient

9.2 * 10-6 K-1

Dielectric constant

7 – 8

Dielectric loss tangent

No data available

Specific resistivity

1013 - 1015W/cm

Optical properties

Transmission range

0.4 to 6.5 µm

Refraction index

nd = 2.15

Dispersion

0.06

X-ray properties